A to Z information of complicated medical phrases: From what an epidemiologist does to how cryotherapy works

With phrases similar to epidemiologist, cryotherapy and homeostasis, it will probably generally really feel unimaginable to grasp medical jargon.

However, the Mail’s well being crew have reduce via the complicated science to clarify precisely what these phrases imply.

With terms such as epidemiologist, cryotherapy and homeostasis, it can sometimes feel impossible to comprehend medical jargon. But, the Mail's health team have cut through the complex science to explain exactly what these words mean in an A to Z glossary

With phrases similar to epidemiologist, cryotherapy and homeostasis, it will probably generally really feel unimaginable to grasp medical jargon. However, the Mail’s well being crew have reduce via the complicated science to clarify precisely what these phrases imply in an A to Z glossary

ABSCESS

An abscess is a lump that may develop in any a part of your physique, and is because of a build-up of pus.

There are two most important varieties — a pores and skin abscess, which develops underneath the pores and skin; and an inner abscess, which varieties in or round our organs.

Whatever the location, they’re usually attributable to a bacterial an infection and will trigger different signs of an infection, similar to a fever and chills.

The phrase has origins from the mid sixteenth century: from Latin abscessus (from the verb abscedere), referring to the separation or elimination of contaminated matter by way of the pus.

Whereas a small abscess could drain naturally or shrink with out therapy, bigger ones might have antibiotics to clear the an infection, adopted by a process to empty the pus.

AMYLOID

The phrase amyloid means ‘starch-like’ an amyloid is an irregular protein made within the bone marrow. 

A build-up of amyloids can result in fibrils (stiff, fibre-like buildings) within the tissues and organs, which disrupt their regular perform.

Amyloids are linked to quite a few sicknesses, together with a gaggle of illnesses referred to as amyloidosis the signs fluctuate relying on the world affected. The most typical type is Alzheimer’s: right here amyloid plaques type within the mind, affecting cognitive capabilities.

If it is the center that is affected, amyloidosis can intervene with its capability to pump, leading to coronary heart failure.

There is no such thing as a remedy for amyloidosis, however some sufferers could also be given remedies to scale back the manufacturing of amyloids.

ANEURYSM 

An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel attributable to a weak spot within the vessel wall. 

It will possibly happen within the partitions of any blood vessel, together with these resulting in the center. 

If an aneurysm ruptures it will probably trigger sudden lack of blood, which may be deadly.

Aneurysms can develop as the results of a hereditary situation, an acquired illness similar to coronary heart illness, or a extreme head harm. Smoking, hypertension and outdated age can enhance the danger.

Aneurysms can develop as the result of a hereditary condition, an acquired disease such as heart disease, or a severe head injury

Aneurysms can develop as the results of a hereditary situation, an acquired illness similar to coronary heart illness, or a extreme head harm

ANTERIOR

In case your physician begins speaking about one thing being ‘anterior’, all they imply is it is on the entrance.

Blood vessels may also be described as ‘anterior’ for instance, the anterior cerebral artery provides oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes of the mind.

‘Anterior’ may also be used to seek advice from the placement inside part of the physique, for instance a typical knee harm is a tear to the anterior cruciate ligament.

This band of powerful connecting tissue runs from the entrance to the again of the knee and hyperlinks the entrance of the shin bone (tibia) to the again of the thigh bone (femur).

It is necessary for serving to the knee bend, but additionally stopping the joint rotating an excessive amount of.

Its reverse is the posterior cruciate ligament, which connects the again of the shin to the entrance of the thigh.

ANTIGEN

An antigen is a protein that may set off the immune system to react — that is the physique’s means of defending itself towards an infection and illness.

Most antigens come from micro-organisms and toxins within the surroundings — one other supply is donor tissue utilized in transplants.

Typically, innocent substances, similar to pollen, are misidentified by the immune system as dangerous antigens, leading to an allergic response. This triggers the discharge of the chemical histamine, inflicting signs similar to rashes, itching and facial swelling.

The physique additionally produces antigens — for instance, prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is produced by cells within the prostate gland.

Usually, ranges are low, however raised PSA ranges generally is a signal of most cancers or benign situations similar to an enlarged prostate or an an infection. A studying larger than 4 warrants additional investigation for prostate most cancers.

ANTI-OXIDANT

Purple wine, inexperienced tea and darkish chocolate are all mentioned to have well being advantages as they’re wealthy in anti-oxidants — a sort of chemical that protects us towards rogue molecules referred to as free radicals, which bind to our cells and harm them.

An excessive amount of of this form of harm is linked to ageing and illnesses similar to age-related macular degeneration and even most cancers. 

Free radicals can come from daylight or meals, however are additionally produced by chemical reactions within the physique. 

Red wine, green tea and dark chocolate are all said to have health benefits as they're rich in anti-oxidants ¿ a type of chemical that protects us against rogue molecules called free radicals, which bind to our cells and damage them

Purple wine, inexperienced tea and darkish chocolate are all mentioned to have well being advantages as they’re wealthy in anti-oxidants — a sort of chemical that protects us towards rogue molecules referred to as free radicals, which bind to our cells and harm them

Antioxidants bind to free radicals earlier than they’ll connect to cells. The physique makes some antioxidants it wants, however most come from what we eat. 

Frequent varieties are nutritional vitamins C, E and A, resveratrol (in crimson wine) and catechins (in chocolate and inexperienced tea). 

Whereas anti-oxidant wealthy diets (for instance, with a lot of fruit and veg) have been discovered to beat back most cancers, research present anti-oxidants in complement type do not have the identical impact.

APNOEA

Apnoea is when respiratory quickly stops attributable to a blockage within the airway. 

The most typical symptom is loud night breathing, a results of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is attributable to the gentle tissues on the prime of the throat collapsing quickly throughout sleep. 

It’s thought to have an effect on 1.5million individuals within the UK, and as much as 18million within the US.

In lots of instances persons are unaware they’ve apnoea, as they do not get up when it happens.

Apnoea is when breathing temporarily stops due to a blockage in the airway. The most common symptom is snoring, a result of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is caused by the soft tissues at the top of the throat collapsing temporarily during sleep

Apnoea is when respiratory quickly stops attributable to a blockage within the airway. The most typical symptom is loud night breathing, a results of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is attributable to the gentle tissues on the prime of the throat collapsing quickly throughout sleep

One other (much less widespread) type is central apnoea, the place the brainstem (the decrease a part of the mind, which connects it to the physique) does not perform correctly — both as a result of it’s not but totally developed in infants, or, in adults, attributable to an harm or trauma. This impacts the medulla, part of the mind that controls respiratory.

Apnoea derives from the Historic Greek phrase ‘apnoos’, which means ‘need of breath’.

APOPTOSIS

Apoptosis is the method by the place a cell commits suicide. It’s important to human growth, killing off cells which might be outdated, broken or not wanted.

For instance, apoptosis kills off extra cells to type solely ten toes and ten fingers on infants within the womb. Additionally it is behind menstruation, breaking down tissue lining the uterus.

Some most cancers cells are immune to apoptosis alerts, to allow them to proceed to copy. Apoptosis occurs when proteins contained in the cell are activated by a sign from the immune system.

The proteins eat via a cell, destroying proteins essential to its survival and cease it replicating. This prompts different cells to clear the remnants of the lifeless cell.

Apoptosis comes from the Greek for falling off or away from.

APPENDECTOMY

Surgical procedure to take away the appendix is named an appendectomy. 

‘Ectomy’ means to take away one thing with surgical procedure, from the Greek for ‘to chop out’. One other examples is tonsillectomy, to take away tonsils.

Append means ‘so as to add on to’. Within the physique, the appendix is an extra a part of the digestive tract with out an apparent perform. 

Nevertheless, it will probably change into infected (appendicitis) and, if left untreated, can burst, resulting in a probably deadly an infection.

'Ectomy' means to remove something with surgery, from the Greek for 'to cut out'. Another examples is tonsillectomy, to remove tonsils

‘Ectomy’ means to take away one thing with surgical procedure, from the Greek for ‘to chop out’. One other examples is tonsillectomy, to take away tonsils

To stop this, an appendectomy is carried out, usually as a keyhole process. It’s one the commonest procedures.

Phrases that ends in ‘tomy’ relatively than ‘ectomy’ similar to tracheotomy of the throat, means the physique is opened up for exploratory surgical procedure, however nothing is essentially eliminated.

ATAXIA

That is the medical time period for clumsiness. Additionally it is the identify given to a gaggle of neurological problems that have an effect on stability, coordination and speech.

This form of ataxia is often attributable to harm to the cerebellum (the area on the base of the mind involved with stability), however generally is a results of harm to different components of the nervous system. 

It comes from the Greek prefix ‘a’, which means ‘with out’ or ‘not’, and ‘taxis’, which means ‘order’.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

This time period refers to a situation the place the arteries change into narrowed and hardened as a result of build-up of a substance referred to as plaque across the artery wall.

When this occurs, attributable to plaque accumulation, oxygen-rich blood that flows via the arteries can not attain the remainder of the physique effectively.

This could result in quite a few illnesses, relying on which arteries are affected.

One of the vital well-known is coronary heart illness, when blood circulate within the arteries surrounding the center is restricted. This could result in angina (chest ache) or, in additional severe instances, a coronary heart assault.

The time period is a conjugation of the Greek phrases ‘athere’ which means ‘groats’ and sclerosis’, which means ‘hardening’.

ATOPY

Atopy is the time period for a genetic tendency to develop allergic reactions — the phrase comes from the Greek phrase atopos, which means misplaced or extraordinary.

Atopy is thought to run in households, and people affected typically endure from a number of allergic reactions directly — mostly eczema, bronchial asthma or hay fever. Some endure from all three situations, often called the ‘allergic triad’, and most can even have meals allergic reactions and different reactions.

These allergic reactions may be recognized via a pores and skin prick take a look at, which is able to present up larger ranges of antibodies referred to as immunoglobulin E, which the physique produces to struggle a perceived risk, or allergen, throughout an allergic response.

Outcomes of this pores and skin take a look at may determine the precise allergen that’s inflicting the response so the sufferer is aware of what to keep away from.

ATROPHY

Atrophy comes from the Greek prefix ‘a-‘ which means ‘with out’ and ‘trophe’ which means ‘meals’.

Atrophy is perhaps best known in the context of muscle atrophy, often seen in patients who have restricted mobility (from hospitalisation or wheelchair use, for instance)

Atrophy is probably finest recognized within the context of muscle atrophy, typically seen in sufferers who’ve restricted mobility (from hospitalisation or wheelchair use, as an illustration)

It’s the losing away of an organ or tissue (both fully or partially).

It is maybe finest recognized within the context of muscle atrophy, typically seen in sufferers who’ve restricted mobility (from hospitalisation or wheelchair use, as an illustration), the place lack of bodily exercise over an extended time frame results in lowered muscle mass.

One of these muscle atrophy is known as physiologic atrophy there are two different varieties, pathologic and neurogenic.

Pathologic atrophy may be attributable to ageing, malnutrition and illnesses similar to Cushing’s.

Neurogenic atrophy may result from an harm to the muscle or its nerve provide.

BENIGN

When a situation is known as benign, it suggests it’s not harmful or significantly severe. 

Benign is often used to explain a tumour. 

It means the expansion shouldn’t be cancerous and is not rising in a short time. 

The precise reason for a benign progress is unknown, however outcomes from cells dividing and rising at a sooner fee than they’re dying off.

It’s the similar underlying mechanism that leads to cancerous growths, however these develop even sooner and might unfold to different areas. Benign growths — moles are one instance — can type wherever however could not pose a risk to well being.

Nevertheless, if large enough, or in the event that they develop near the mind, nerves or organs, they could trigger some signs. A benign mind tumour, as an illustration, could trigger complications or eyesight issues.

Benign is derived from the Latin phrase ‘benignus’ — the prefix ‘bene’ which means effectively and suffix ‘genus’ which means start.

BIOPSY

A biopsy is when a tissue pattern is taken for nearer examination: cells are checked out underneath a microscope. 

After the pattern is eliminated, it is taken to a lab, the place it is reduce and sliced, then stained with numerous dyes, which correspond to totally different markers of illness, and examined.

Mostly, biopsies are used to examine a lump or swelling for most cancers. However they’ll additionally verify diagnoses similar to hepatitis or assist to clarify why some girls have irregular intervals.

Relying on the situation, every biopsy takes a barely totally different quantity of tissue. Typically it is sufficient to scrape an space with a brush-like gadget, similar to with smear assessments on the cervix. With different areas, such because the liver or abdomen lining, extra cells are taken utilizing tiny needles.

Biopsies are when a tissue sample is taken for closer examination, most commonly to check if lumps or swellings for cancer

Biopsies are when a tissue pattern is taken for nearer examination, mostly to examine if lumps or swellings for most cancers

BRITTLE

The time period is used to explain bronchial asthma and kind 1 diabetes when it is change into tough to regulate and unpredictable, regardless of the affected person taking the fitting treatment. 

Sufferers with brittle bronchial asthma and diabetes are regularly hospitalised. About 0.05 per cent of the 5.4million individuals with bronchial asthma within the UK and 25million within the US are thought to have the brittle sort. 

Most may have issue respiratory virtually the entire time, in addition to frequent severe, life-threatening bronchial asthma assaults. 

Brittle diabetes is extra uncommon, affecting about three in 1,000 individuals with sort 1 diabetes — which is when the physique is unable to make insulin, the hormone that mops up glucose from the bloodstream. 

Brittle sort 1 diabetes can result in frequent excessive swings in blood sugar ranges, inflicting hyperglycemia, when blood sugar is dangerously excessive, or hypoglycemia, when it’s dangerously low.

CARCINOGENIC

Most cancers is attributable to modifications in a cell’s blueprint, or DNA.

Some modifications could also be inherited from our dad and mom, others could also be attributable to outdoors components similar to smoking, UV gentle, sure chemical compounds, cleansing merchandise and air pollution. These are often called carcinogens.

Carcinogens can immediately change DNA, or result in most cancers in different methods. For instance, they could trigger cells to divide at a sooner fee, growing the possibility of DNA modifications occurring.

Some changes may be inherited from our parents, others may be caused by outside factors such as smoking, UV light, certain chemicals, cleaning products and pollution. These are known as carcinogens

Some modifications could also be inherited from our dad and mom, others could also be attributable to outdoors components similar to smoking, UV gentle, sure chemical compounds, cleansing merchandise and air pollution. These are often called carcinogens

Carcinogens don’t trigger most cancers in each case. Substances labelled as carcinogens could have totally different ranges of cancer-causing potential. Some could trigger most cancers solely after extended, excessive ranges of publicity.

And for any particular person, the danger of growing most cancers will depend on many components, together with their genetic make-up.

CERVICAL

Cervical means ‘pertaining to the neck’ and comes from the Latin for neck, cervix.

Cervical spondylosis or cervical osteoarthritis is a degenerative situation affecting the joints within the neck, inflicting ache and stiffness within the neck, arms and shoulders.

Some persons are born with a cervical rib, an additional one which varieties above the traditional first rib (on the backside of the neck).

The cervical rib is mainly an overdeveloped model of the bottom neck bone.

However ‘cervical’ is not simply used to seek advice from the bit your head sits on — it’s used to seek advice from the slim a part of any organ or construction.

For example, the cervix — also called the neck of the womb — is the decrease, slim a part of the uterus, which extends into the vagina and is made up of easy muscle tissue that may stretch throughout being pregnant and childbirth.

Even tooth have a cervix — the narrowed half that sits within the gum between the crown and the basis.

For instance, the cervix ¿ also known as the neck of the womb ¿ is the lower, narrow part of the uterus, which extends into the vagina and is made up of smooth muscle tissue that can stretch during pregnancy and childbirth

For example, the cervix — also called the neck of the womb — is the decrease, slim a part of the uterus, which extends into the vagina and is made up of easy muscle tissue that may stretch throughout being pregnant and childbirth

CHROMOSOMES

Chromosomes are the tiny threads of DNA — our genetic blueprint — held within the centre of every human cell.

The phrase chromosome comes from Greek — ‘chromo’ means color, ‘soma’ means physique.

The identify was coined by Heinrich Waldeyer in 1888 just a few years after one other scientist, Walther Flemming, recognized these fibres contained in the cell utilizing dyes to look at them underneath a microscope.

The DNA in chromosomes incorporates our genes, that are mainly directions to our physique that we’ve inherited from our dad and mom.

Genes are organized in a sure order on the chromosomes — every cell incorporates 23 pairs of chromosomes (the pairs are made up of 1 chromosome from every father or mother) and about 30,000 genes. This implies we’ve two copies of each gene — the one exception is the intercourse chromosomes, X and Y. Ladies have two X chromosomes whereas males have considered one of every — XY — in order that they have just a few genes discovered solely on the Y chromosome.

CILIA

These are the tiny, hair-like buildings discovered on virtually each cell in our our bodies. They lengthen roughly 0.1mm outwards from the cells. There are two varieties, motile cilia (‘transferring’ cilia) and non-motile.

Motile cilia consistently beat in a single path, to allow them to assist cells transfer round and in addition transfer fluid alongside. They’re often on a cell’s floor, and there are numerous of them on every cell, transferring in co-ordinated waves.

Motile cilia are discovered within the lining of the windpipe, the place they sweep mucus and grime out of the lungs.

Usually a cell has just one non-motile cilium, which is concerned in vital processes similar to sensing its surroundings.

Within the eye, they assist maintain collectively totally different components of light-sensitive cells.

Ailments attributable to issues with the cilia — often the nonmotile cilia — are referred to as ciliopathies and are often genetic. These embody retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited eye illness, and polycystic kidney illness, the place fluid-filled cysts develop within the kidneys, which causes progressive renal failure.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM

Any exercise within the physique that follows a each day sample (similar to our cycle of sleeping then waking) is named a circadian rhythm.

Any activity in the body that follows a daily pattern (such as our cycle of sleeping then waking) is known as a circadian rhythm

Any exercise within the physique that follows a each day sample (similar to our cycle of sleeping then waking) is named a circadian rhythm

The phrase comes from the Latin circa, which means round, and dies, which means day.

Different examples of circadian rhythms embody our physique temperature, which fluctuates all through the day, often reaching its lowest level throughout deep sleep.

Circadian rhythms present our inner physique clock in motion. All our physique’s exercise is ruled by a ‘grasp clock’, positioned within the hypothalamus within the mind, which sends alerts to different components of the physique to maintain us operating on time.

CONTRAINDICATION

A contraindication is a medical cause why a sure therapy or process is inadvisable for a affected person.

There are two varieties of contraindications — relative and absolute. With a relative contraindication, warning ought to be used when two medication or procedures are used collectively (however it could be acceptable to make use of them each if the advantages outweigh the dangers). 

For instance, sufferers taking the blood thinner warfarin are often suggested to keep away from aspirin, which additionally thins the blood, due to the bleeding danger.

An absolute contraindication is when a medicine or process ought to be averted; for instance, the pimples drug isotretinoin (often called Roaccutane) shouldn’t be taken in being pregnant as a result of danger of start defects.

CRYOTHERAPY

Also referred to as chilly remedy, cryotherapy consists of an array of remedies that make use of extraordinarily low temperatures.

One in all its finest recognized makes use of includes eradicating areas of pores and skin similar to warts and basal cell carcinomas (a typical type of pores and skin most cancers). 

The affected pores and skin is ‘frozen’ with a liquid nitrogen spray for 5 to 10 seconds, which kills off the rogue cells. Some main cancers may also be handled. In prostate most cancers, for instance, a needle inserts ‘freezing’ gasoline (on this case, argon) into the prostate to kill most cancers cells.

Also known as cold therapy, cryotherapy includes an array of treatments that employ extremely low temperatures. Portugal World Cup star Cristiano Ronaldo is a fan of cryotherapy. Ronaldo posed alongside his son outside a cryotherapy chamber for a social media snap earlier this year

Also referred to as chilly remedy, cryotherapy consists of an array of remedies that make use of extraordinarily low temperatures. Portugal World Cup star Cristiano Ronaldo is a fan of cryotherapy. Ronaldo posed alongside his son outdoors a cryotherapy chamber for a social media snap earlier this 12 months

Entire-body cryotherapy, which includes standing in a chamber cooled to lower than -100c, is typically beneficial for sure muscle and joint-related situations.

DIURETIC

A diuretic is any substance that will increase the quantity of water excreted from the physique. The phrase comes from the Greek phrases ‘dia’, which means via, and ‘ouron’, which means urine.

Some analysis means that sure meals and drinks, together with blueberries, pineapple, tea and occasional, are pure diuretics.

In drugs, diuretics are sometimes prescribed to individuals with hypertension, coronary heart failure or sure varieties of liver or kidney issues as a result of they have a tendency to have a build-up of extra physique fluid, which contributes to their drawback.

So-called ‘water tablets’ are used primarily to scale back blood stress, as eliminating water and salt from the blood reduces the quantity of labor the center has to do to pump it around the physique.

Athletes are banned from utilizing diuretics as a result of they’ll dilute doping brokers of their urine, making drug assessments unreliable.

DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL

‘Blinding’ is a technique used to make the outcomes of scientific trials extra dependable.

The accepted finest follow for testing a brand new therapy is to check it with an current therapy or a placebo (a dummy therapy, similar to a sugar capsule or saline resolution). 

If a trial is ‘blind’ it means the individuals do not know in the event that they’re getting the true therapy or not. If a trial is ‘double blind’, the researchers additionally do not know.

It is vital for sufferers to be ‘blind’ as a result of typically if individuals suppose they’re getting a brand new therapy they really feel higher no matter how effectively it is really working and this could skew the outcomes.

'Blinding' is a method used to make the results of clinical trials more reliable. The accepted best practice for testing a new treatment is to compare it with an existing treatment or a placebo (a dummy treatment, such as a sugar pill or saline solution)

‘Blinding’ is a technique used to make the outcomes of scientific trials extra dependable. The accepted finest follow for testing a brand new therapy is to check it with an current therapy or a placebo (a dummy therapy, similar to a sugar capsule or saline resolution)

If researchers additionally do not know which individuals have obtained the true therapy, this prevents bias in the case of recording the outcomes, particularly as these aren’t all the time goal measures similar to blood stress, however may very well be an evaluation of how a lot ache somebody is in.

Whereas a double-blind trial is comparatively easy for brand spanking new medication (placebo tablets may be made to look the identical), it’s not all the time potential — similar to when testing surgical strategies.

DYSPLASIA

Dysplasia is when tissues, cells and even bones are malformed.

The time period derives from the Historic Greek dys, which means unhealthy and plasis, which means formation. Dysplasia of the cells is a pre-cancerous situation.

For instance, following a smear take a look at, a lady is perhaps discovered to have irregular cells, which can imply the cells are pre-cancerous and would require additional testing.

This can be carried out within the type of a biopsy, which includes taking a small pattern of physique tissue, or a colposcopy, when a microscope is used to look at the cervix.

Cervical dysplasia may be handled by freezing irregular cells, laser remedy, eradicating the affected tissue utilizing electrical energy or eradicating a small a part of the cervix.

One other instance is hip dysplasia, which is when the joint is misaligned. Extreme instances may be handled with surgical procedure to vary the positioning of the hip socket or exchange the joint.

ECTOPIC

The phrase is assumed to come back from the Greek ektopos, which means ‘misplaced’. It’s utilized in a medical context to explain a physique construction present in an irregular place, or a perform that happens on the fallacious time.

For instance, an ectopic being pregnant is the place the embryo develops in a fallopian tube relatively than within the uterus.

In the meantime, an ectopic heartbeat is a contraction of the center muscle that is out of the traditional rhythm.

These ectopic beats are often innocent and might happen even when your coronary heart is in any other case wholesome. Usually they’re triggered by stimulants similar to caffeine and alcohol.

Nevertheless, a number of ectopic beats may cause palpitations — the feeling of feeling your coronary heart beating — and on this case, you need to see a health care provider.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system is made up of glands responsible for the production and release of hormones needed for metabolism, growth, stress and sexual function. These glands include the ovaries, testes, pancreas, and adrenal glands, which release hormones directly into the bloodstream

The endocrine system is made up of glands answerable for the manufacturing and launch of hormones wanted for metabolism, progress, stress and sexual perform. These glands embody the ovaries, testes, pancreas, and adrenal glands, which launch hormones immediately into the bloodstream

The endocrine system is made up of glands answerable for the manufacturing and launch of hormones wanted for metabolism, progress, stress and sexual perform. 

These glands embody the ovaries, testes, pancreas, and adrenal glands, which launch hormones immediately into the bloodstream. 

The endocrine system is monitored by the pituitary gland discovered on the entrance of the mind close to the nostril — which, in flip, reviews to the hypothalamus, an space of the mind answerable for temperature management, starvation and sleep, and which might help alter hormone secretion in keeping with the physique’s wants. 

Ageing, drugs and illnesses can result in the over or underneath secretion of hormones. And now some scientists have famous that Covid can result in hormone-related problems, probably as a result of the virus assaults the pituitary gland. 

ENDOTHELIUM

This refers to a layer of cells that acts as a lining for blood vessels, the center, and the lymphatic ducts — which drain lymph fluid, an vital a part of the immune system, from the tissues and again into the bloodstream.

The cells of the endothelium are skinny and flat, giving a easy floor which helps the circulate of lymph and blood and helps forestall blood clots.

‘Endo’ comes from the Greek for ‘inside’ or ‘inner’, whereas ‘ium’ merely means tissue or construction (equally, the endometrium is the time period for the liner of the womb).

The time period epithelium refers back to the outer layer of cells that covers your entire floor of the physique, together with the pores and skin — ‘epi’ comes from the Greek for ‘upon’ — in addition to the cells lining hole organs and glands.

ENZYME

Enzymes are giant proteins discovered naturally within the physique that play a key function in dashing up chemical processes — for instance, the enzyme pepsin is concerned within the breakdown of proteins within the abdomen into smaller items (often called peptides) that may then be extra simply absorbed by the physique.

There are roughly 75,000 varieties of enzyme discovered within the physique, and most will solely work underneath very exact situations. Pepsin, as an illustration, wants the acidic surroundings of the abdomen.

There are additionally enzymes which restore the DNA in cells, and these have been prompt as the brand new miracle staff of skincare.

Though nothing can substitute enough solar safety, a 2001 research within the Lancet demonstrated that these enzymes might assist scale back the danger of pores and skin most cancers by as much as 68 per cent.

EPIDEMIOLOGIST

An epidemiologist studies patterns of disease in a population, for instance looking at which diseases occur where, how they are spreading, and/or their links to factors such as diet and lifestyle. Pictured, Imperial College London epidemiologist Professor Neil Ferguson, who was given the nickname 'Professor Lockdown', whose projections persuaded No10 into adopting tough restrictions

An epidemiologist research patterns of illness in a inhabitants, as an illustration which illnesses happen the place, how they’re spreading, and/or their hyperlinks to components similar to eating regimen and life-style. Pictured, Imperial School London epidemiologist Professor Neil Ferguson, who was given the nickname ‘Professor Lockdown’, whose projections persuaded No10 into adopting powerful restrictions

An epidemiologist research patterns of illness in a inhabitants, as an illustration which illnesses happen the place, how they’re spreading, and/or their hyperlinks to components similar to eating regimen and life-style.

They typically work inside authorities well being departments or universities and their findings can affect coverage and plans to keep away from, or take care of, outbreaks.

Nevertheless, critics say that these sorts of statement aren’t the identical as figuring out a trigger — and so it’s fallacious to vary coverage based mostly on such findings alone.

ESR (ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE)

In the event you’ve had blood assessments for an an infection, you most likely had your erythrocyte sedimentation fee (ESR) checked — even if you happen to did not realise.

This blood take a look at measures irritation ranges. In addition to an infection, it will probably level to situations, similar to rheumatoid arthritis, and monitor them.

The take a look at evaluates the speed at which crimson blood cells fall in a take a look at tube. The phrase ‘erythrocyte’ means crimson blood cells and ‘sedimentation’ describes their motion.

In a affected person with little irritation, the cells fall slowly, leaving plasma (the straw-coloured liquid in blood) on the prime. With larger ranges of irritation, cells fall sooner.

It’s because there are extra proteins, that are generated as a part of the physique’s defence mechanism towards an infection.

FLAVONOID

Flavonoids are compounds present in meals similar to fruit and veggies, in addition to in tea and crimson wine.

It's good news for chocolate lovers! Cocoa contains flavonols, which are a class of flavonoids

It is excellent news for chocolate lovers! Cocoa incorporates flavonols, that are a category of flavonoids

They’re mentioned to have antioxidant properties, which suggests they’ll scale back the harm brought about to the physique’s cells by free radicals.

Free radicals are dangerous molecules which might be produced by environmental components similar to air pollution, but additionally by the physique’s personal processes, similar to respiratory.

Flavonoids can also assist to forestall blood clots.

Specialists counsel together with extra flavonoid-rich meals in your eating regimen to guard towards illnesses together with most cancers.

That is excellent news for chocolate lovers, as cocoa incorporates flavonols, that are a category of flavonoids.

FREE RADICAL

A free radical is an atom, or group of atoms (often called a molecule) with an odd variety of electrons — the negatively charged particles contained in the atom.

This odd quantity means they’re very reactive and might bind to cells within the physique.

Free radicals are produced within the physique throughout regular metabolic processes, however may come from exterior sources similar to smoke, daylight and meals. It has lengthy been thought that free radicals are damaging and trigger ageing and illness, however current analysis means that the other could, in reality, be true.

Scientists at McGill College in Montreal, Canada, say that extra free radicals are produced throughout ageing as a result of the molecules really assist struggle, relatively than trigger, the ageing course of, growing a cell’s defences and boosting its lifespan.

GENE EXPRESSION

Gene expression is the method by which sure genes inside our cells are turned on and off.

Each cell in a human physique may have all their genes in it (within the type of our DNA, our genetic blueprint), however solely a small fraction of those genes are ever turned on or ‘expressed’.

It is this course of that can decide every cell’s perform. That is how one cell would possibly find yourself being vital to your coronary heart, whereas one other cell makes bone.

When genes are activated, this in flip causes proteins to be made.

Proteins may very well be something from enzymes to mind chemical compounds, which management all the pieces from hair color to immunity. Analysis has proven that environmental components similar to treatment, temperature and light-weight may have an affect on which genes are turned on and off.

GENOME

The genome is the time period for our complete set of genes. It’s typically what individuals imply once they seek advice from DNA.

Our DNA is the hereditary materials that’s distinctive to every of us.

Sections of DNA are often called genes, and act as totally different units of directions for constructing and sustaining our cells.

Our ‘genome’ refers to all these genes as a complete. The time period was first utilized in 1920 by a German botanist referred to as Hans Winkler.

A world endeavour referred to as the Human Genome Challenge was launched in 1990 to develop the know-how after which analyse the human genome.

The genome is the term for our entire set of genes. It is often what people mean when they refer to DNA. Our DNA is the hereditary material that is unique to each of us

The genome is the time period for our complete set of genes. It’s typically what individuals imply once they seek advice from DNA. Our DNA is the hereditary materials that’s distinctive to every of us

The challenge was accomplished in 2003, which means that, for the primary time, each human gene had been recognized.

GOLD STANDARD

In drugs, ‘gold normal’ means one of the best out there.

The time period was first utilized in a medical context within the Seventies.

It tends to explain assessments to diagnose situations.

In idea, the gold normal is a take a look at that by no means misses illness, however does not detect illness the place there’s none.

Nevertheless, good diagnostic assessments should not all the time potential on a residing individual, and the ‘gold normal’ take a look at could change as extra correct strategies are found.

The time period can also be used to explain one of the best therapy, though right here, medical doctors typically use ‘first-line’ as a substitute.

In coronary heart assaults, the gold normal therapy is major angioplasty.

This emergency process (a tiny balloon is inflated in an artery blocked by a clot inside hours of assault) restores blood circulate and clears blockage in 9 out of ten sufferers.

Not too long ago, the Royal School of Physicians spoke of the necessity for a ‘gold normal’ of look after aged sufferers.

With the Royal School of Nursing, British Geriatrics Society and Age UK, it has devised the Elder-Pleasant High quality Mark, to be awarded to hospitals that may show a excessive normal of look after weak older individuals.

HAEMOGLOBIN 

That is the protein wanted to make crimson blood cells and is answerable for transporting oxygen across the physique low ranges can result in tiredness and shortness of breath.

Usually this is because of an absence of iron, a mineral important for haemoglobin manufacturing. Haemoglobin ranges may drop considerably attributable to lack of blood or sickness.

Ranges of haemoglobin naturally fluctuate between individuals, however males are likely to have larger ranges most likely due to the differing results of hormones onerythropoiesis, the method the place the physique creates crimson blood cells. Iron deficiency is handled by dietary modifications and iron dietary supplements out of your GP.

Haemoglobin is the protein needed to make red blood cells and is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body low levels can lead to tiredness and shortness of breath

Haemoglobin is the protein wanted to make crimson blood cells and is answerable for transporting oxygen across the physique low ranges can result in tiredness and shortness of breath

The time period ‘haemoglobin’ is from the Greek ‘haemato’ which means blood, and ‘globulin’ is from the Latin ‘globus’ for ‘ball or sphere’.

HOMEOSTASIS

Homeostasis is Greek for ‘similar state’. 

Medically, it refers back to the computerized processes the physique makes use of to keep up its inner situations, similar to physique temperature. 

For example, an indication of homeostasis is sweating after a exercise — your overheated physique is attempting to return to its regular temperature. 

Most of our vital organs, such because the liver, kidneys and mind, are concerned in homeostasis. 

It is sort of a automobile’s cruise management, the place know-how responds to exterior modifications to stay at a relentless pace. 

Coronary heart failure, diabetes and dehydration are situations the place homeostasis has failed.

IMMUNOGLOBULIN

Immunogloblins are also called antibodies — these are molecules made by white blood cells in response to an an infection attributable to viruses or micro organism.

A blood take a look at can inform you probably have larger immunoglobulin ranges, which could point out you’re combating an an infection; or decrease ranges, that are an indication the immune system is not working in addition to it ought to.

There are 5 varieties of immunoglobulin, every starting with the abbreviation ‘Ig’ and located in several areas of the physique. IgG is the commonest; IgE is the one which causes allergic reactions, triggering signs.

INFARCTION

The physique’s tissue, muscle mass and organs depend on a provide of oxygen-rich blood for important vitamins.

A blood clot or harm can imply that provide is reduce off, often called an ischaemia.

The impact of that is an infarction: the place the tissue dies. This could happen wherever within the physique however ‘infarction’ is often used within the context of a coronary heart assault (myocardial infarction). An infarction within the mind, inflicting a stroke, is known as a cerebral infarction.

The body's tissue, muscles and organs rely on a supply of oxygen-rich blood for essential nutrients. A blood clot or injury can mean that supply is cut off, known as an ischaemia

The physique’s tissue, muscle mass and organs depend on a provide of oxygen-rich blood for important vitamins. A blood clot or harm can imply that provide is reduce off, often called an ischaemia

ISOTONIC

It is a time period you typically see on sports activities drink labels however ‘isotonic’ is not only a advertising gimmick. 

The phrase — from the Greek isos (equal) and tonos (tone) — means a liquid has an identical focus of sugar, salt and minerals as our blood and cells.

An isotonic drink replenishes fluid and salts misplaced via sweating, in addition to restocking vitality shops. 

It should include round 4-8 per cent carbohydrate — round one to 2 teaspoons of sugar per 100ml water. 

The additional vitality and minerals — similar to potassium and chloride — are solely wanted after exercising for greater than an hour. Sports activities drinks may also be labelled ‘hypotonic’, which suggests they include much less sugar and salt than our regular blood focus.

These assist the physique rehydrate, however with out the vitality increase — they’re useful for train that does not essentially burn a variety of energy. ‘Hypertonic’ drinks, alternatively, have a better focus of sugar and minerals and assist throughout endurance train.

LAPARATOMY

This can be a normal time period meaning opening up the stomach. In drugs, ‘tomy’ means ‘to chop into’ and ‘laparo’ means belly wall, from the Greek for flank.

Equally, tracheotomy refers to opening up the windpipe the trachea and episiotomy, a reduce made throughout labour to create extra room to ship the child, comes by way of ‘episi’, which suggests pubic area or loins.

A well known however defunct instance is lobotomy, used to deal with a spread of psychological sicknesses within the twentieth century. This was the slicing away of the connections to and from the frontal lobes within the mind.

The incision for laparotomy may be made up and down, so from the stomach button to the bikini line, or throughout the abdomen.

As it’s an open surgical process, it tends for use solely when a much less invasive keyhole process, often called a laparoscopy, shouldn’t be potential. With laparoscopy, incisions roughly 1cm to 2cm lengthy are made to permit the insertion of a digital camera on a versatile tube to diagnose issues with the stomach, reproductive organs or pelvis.

LESION

A lesion is an space of tissue that has been broken because of harm, illness, ageing or an infection. 

Lesions can seem as wounds, ulcers and abscesses, in addition to tumours. 

The phrase comes from the Latin laesio, from laedere, which suggests to injure, harm or harm.

A lesion is an area of tissue that has been damaged as a result of injury, disease, ageing or infection. Lesions can appear as wounds, ulcers and abscesses, as well as tumours

A lesion is an space of tissue that has been broken because of harm, illness, ageing or an infection. Lesions can seem as wounds, ulcers and abscesses, in addition to tumours

LYMPH NODES

Spherical or bean-shaped, these assist to guard us towards invading micro organism and viruses.

The nodes, discovered everywhere in the physique however in clusters in sure areas, such because the groin and armpits, are in reality not glands. 

They’re balls of tissue that entice micro organism and viruses in lymph — the watery fluid that circulates in lymph vessels to hold toxins away from the tissue.

The phrase ‘lymph’ comes from the Latin lympha, which pertains to water.

Inside lymph are lymphocytes, cells that assist struggle off invading micro organism and viruses. Lymphocytes can alert different killer cells of an assault, which is why the nodes in our armpits or groin could change into swollen once we are unwell.

MAXILLOFACIAL

Maxillofacial refers to something involving the jaw, face and neck.

The maxilla is the world of the cranium comprising the centre of the face, the higher jaw and the roof of the mouth.

It’s shaped of two bones, which fuse collectively in the course of the face.

Maxillofacial ache refers to any ache within the jaw or face — oral and maxillofacial surgeons concentrate on illnesses affecting this space. Specialists who work on this area are required to have a twin diploma in drugs and dentistry.

METABOLISM

Generally used to explain how shortly we digest meals, metabolism really covers an enormous variety of chemical reactions consistently occurring within the physique.

These fall broadly into two most important varieties. The primary is catabolism, the place bigger substances similar to meals are damaged down, releasing vitality. With the second, anabolism, smaller substances (similar to vitamins in meals) mix to type different substances, utilizing up vitality.

Medical doctors use the phrase ‘basal metabolic fee’ (BMR) to seek advice from the bottom base degree of vitality wanted for these fixed chemical reactions to happen, however we generally seek advice from this as metabolism.

The pace of metabolism will depend on age, gender, genes and weight — youthful individuals, males and people with extra muscle are likely to have sooner charges. However there isn’t any proof {that a} sluggish metabolism is a cause for weight acquire.

Commonly used to describe how quickly we digest food, metabolism actually covers a vast number of chemical reactions constantly occurring in the body. These fall broadly into two main types. The first is catabolism, where larger substances such as food are broken down, releasing energy

Generally used to explain how shortly we digest meals, metabolism really covers an enormous variety of chemical reactions consistently occurring within the physique. These fall broadly into two most important varieties. The primary is catabolism, the place bigger substances similar to meals are damaged down, releasing vitality

METASTATIC

Metastatic refers to a illness spreading from its origin within the physique. It’s typically used to explain most cancers that has unfold to a different a part of the physique.

However it’s also used for infections, together with these attributable to micro organism similar to staphylococcus aureus, which have travelled from the world the place the an infection first began.

Metastatic infections can lead to severe situations similar to infective endocarditis — which impacts the liner of the chambers of the center and is often attributable to micro organism that travels from the mouth.

In metastatic most cancers, the most cancers cells break free from the place they shaped and journey elsewhere within the physique, often by way of the blood or lymph system. A metastatic most cancers is identical sort as the unique. So, if breast most cancers cells unfold to the lung, they’re nonetheless breast most cancers cells not lung most cancers.

METATARSAL

Now we have 5 lengthy bones in the course of our ft referred to as the metatarsal bones. They connect the ankle to the toes (the toe bones are referred to as the ‘phalanges’), and run parallel to one another in an arch form, mirroring the skin mould of the foot.

The phrase metatarsal comes from Medieval Latin: meta, which means between; and tarsus from the Historic Greek phrase tarsos, which described the only real of the foot.

The most typical metatarsal harm is a ‘fifth metatarsal fracture’, describing a crack or break within the metatarsal bone on the periphery of every foot, typically sustained taking part in sport.

One other harm is metatarsalgia, a painful situation the place the entrance of the only real of your foot or the bottom of your toes — turns into infected.

This may be attributable to tight sneakers or being chubby, which each put pressure on the muscle mass and bones within the foot.

Remedy consists of resting the foot, taking painkillers or utilizing metatarsal pads gentle gel helps which might be worn in your sneakers to alleviate stress on the world.

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY

Monoclonal antibodies are molecules which might be made in a laboratory and engineered to assist the immune system. They’re used to deal with quite a few illnesses together with most cancers, in addition to extreme allergic bronchial asthma.

In most cancers, the monoclonal antibodies (or mAbs) work by attaching onto antigens on the most cancers cells — these are the substances that usually set off the immune system to provide antibodies. The mAbs ‘flag’ the most cancers cell to the immune system, so it will probably destroy it. These man-made molecules additionally assist some signs of allergy — together with extreme bronchial asthma and nettle rash. Right here they aim molecules on the physique’s IGE antibodies, that are concerned in triggering a response; the mAbs dampen down their impact.

In February, the US Meals and Drug Administration additionally authorised two current monoclonal antibody medication to deal with gentle Covid. This adopted profitable trials of the drug mixture in treating 1,000 sufferers liable to their situation worsening.

MUTATION

Cells within the physique are consistently dividing and copying themselves as a part of regular progress and restore — changing these that are lifeless or broken.

However generally as a part of this course of they make a mistake in copying DNA — the directions for our genes — and, when this occurs, they mutate.

The extra this error repeats via additional division, the extra mutated cells mount up.

Typically these cells can die out with out inflicting any hurt. Nevertheless, in different instances they are often dangerous, turning right into a tumour which may very well be cancerous, or, if the mutation happens in sperm or egg cells, leading to start defects or hereditary illnesses.

The phrase mutate comes from the Latin mutare which means to vary. Viruses may expertise these copying errors, resulting in variants.

Though some viruses (similar to herpes and smallpox) include DNA, they’ll have another genetic instruction referred to as RNA or ribonucleic acid (similar to Covid-19 and Ebola) as a substitute. These with RNA mutate at a sooner fee. Most mutations are thought to happen naturally. Nevertheless, generally an exterior issue (a mutagen) can set off the change — as an illustration, publicity to radioactive substances.

The word mutate comes from the Latin mutare meaning to change. Viruses can also experience these copying errors, leading to variants

The phrase mutate comes from the Latin mutare which means to vary. Viruses may expertise these copying errors, resulting in variants

MYALGIA

That is the medical time period for muscle ache, which is extraordinarily widespread. As a result of virtually each a part of the physique has muscle tissue, it may be felt wherever. It often impacts a small variety of muscle mass at a time.

Normally the trigger is simple to pinpoint — most instances are attributable to stress, pressure or bodily exercise. Circumstances such because the flu and lupus (an autoimmune illness) in addition to some drugs (together with statins and ACE inhibitors) may cause myalgia as a side-effect, although sufferers could not hyperlink the medication to their muscle ache.

It is potential to develop myalgia all through the physique. As much as one in 20 Britons are affected by fibromyalgia, a long-term, incurable situation that causes ache everywhere in the physique. It impacts seven occasions extra girls than males.

Polymyalgia rheumatica, an autoimmune dysfunction the place the immune system assaults the physique, causes ache, stiffness and tenderness within the giant muscle mass, usually the shoulders, higher arms and hips.

Steroids to scale back the irritation might help. It is not clear what causes both situation.

NEUROTRANSMITTER

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers within the physique that transmit alerts from nerve cells to different cells, similar to these within the muscle mass and glands, or to different nerves.

The phrase is derived from a mixture of the Greek time period neura, which means one thing that pertains to a nerve or ‘sinew or bowstring’, and the Latin transmittere, which means ‘ship throughout’.

There are two several types of neurotransmitters: excitatory, which fireplace up exercise within the nerve cells; and inhibitory, which calm or sluggish them down.

Serotonin, for instance, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the mind and intestine, and is linked with anxiousness and melancholy.

OFF-LABEL

Typically, a drugs may be prescribed for a situation that it hasn’t been licensed for treating.

For instance, the drug amitriptyline is licensed to deal with melancholy, however medical doctors additionally prescribe it for persistent ache as a result of it relaxes the muscle mass, aiding sleep, and will relieve anxiousness ensuing from the ache.

This is named ‘off-label’ prescribing, the place medical doctors train their scientific judgment to prescribe medicines for sure situations as they see match.

This doesn’t imply the therapy is unsafe, however relatively that the drug’s security and efficacy has not been correctly examined in scientific trials for this explicit use.

Though it’s fully authorized for them to make use of their judgment on this means, medical doctors are generally reluctant to prescribe medication off-label as a result of, in idea, they might be legally liable if one thing ought to go fallacious.

PALLIATIVE

The time period palliative originates from the Latin palliativus, which means ‘underneath cloak’ or ‘covert’. It’s a type of specialised look after sufferers who’ve severe sicknesses similar to most cancers, with the goal of offering consolation and aid.

The purpose can also be to assist the household or carers of the affected person and to supply a holistic method to their care, together with non secular and psychological issues. Palliative care is typically confused with end-of-life care — nevertheless, sufferers who’re receiving palliative care do not essentially have a terminal sickness.

Palliative care ought to ideally start as quickly as prognosis of a severe sickness is given. There may be an emphasis on emotional, in addition to bodily, care, with psychological help and bereavement counselling additionally out there.

The goal of palliative care is also to help the family or carers of the patient and to offer a holistic approach to their care, including spiritual and psychological matters

The purpose of palliative care can also be to assist the household or carers of the affected person and to supply a holistic method to their care, together with non secular and psychological issues

PERINATAL

This pertains to the time simply earlier than or simply after start, from the twenty eighth week of being pregnant to the top of the week after start.

The prefix ‘peri’, from Historic Greek, means ‘about’, ’round’ or ‘close to’. It may also be present in pericardium, the sac across the coronary heart.

One other instance is perimenopause, which refers back to the time main as much as menopause, when oestrogen ranges start to drop.

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

Experiencing common numbness or tingling within the fingers and toes is a attribute signal of peripheral neuropathy — harm to the nerves within the arms and ft.

Peripheral means ‘past a boundary’, derived from the Historic Greek phrases, peri (’round’) and phero (‘to hold’); and neur (‘nerve’).

The peripheral nerves are the a part of the nervous system not enclosed in bones, and embody the sensory nerves (which ship ache and contact messages), motor nerves (which management muscle mass) and autonomic nerves (which assist regulate physique capabilities similar to blood stress).

Peripheral neuropathy is often linked to diabetes, viral infections (similar to shingles) and bodily harm.

PERISTALSIS

That is the method that pushes meals via our digestive system. Muscle tissues within the partitions of the digestive tract, which runs from the gullet to the colon, tighten and calm down, propelling meals alongside.

Round muscle mass within the partitions lining the tract contract behind meals, stopping it transferring again, then muscle mass operating lengthways contract to push it alongside.

However the pace can change.Dehydration and lack of fibre could trigger it to decelerate, resulting in constipation.

And if the intestine is aggravated by, say, micro organism or a meals it can not break down correctly, the muscle mass can spasm, inflicting cramps. In the meantime, an infection may cause peristalsis to hurry up — consequently, meals strikes via the intestine sooner and fewer fluid is absorbed, resulting in diarrhoea.

The phrase peristalsis comes from the Greek ‘peristallein’ — ‘peri’ means round, and ‘stallein’ means to put, and collectively it interprets as ‘to wrap round’.

POLYP

Polyps are small, irregular growths of tissue that may happen in lots of components of the physique together with the colon or bowel, nostril, throat and abdomen. They’re usually no bigger than just a few centimetres however can vary in measurement.

Most polyps are non-cancerous or benign, however as they’re attributable to irregular cell progress (probably as a result of extra manufacturing of pores and skin cells), over time they’ll develop to change into cancerous (or malignant). This may be examined with a biopsy — the place a small pattern of the tissue is examined to determine cancerous cells.

Signs attributable to benign polyps fluctuate relying on their location. For instance, these within the bowel could trigger belly ache and diarrhoea or constipation, whereas these within the nostril would possibly result in a blocked or runny nostril and lowered sense of style or scent.

Blood within the urine could sign polyps within the bladder, and lack of listening to means they could be within the ear canal.

Polyps are small, abnormal growths of tissue that can occur in many parts of the body including the colon or bowel, nose, throat and stomach

Polyps are small, irregular growths of tissue that may happen in lots of components of the physique together with the colon or bowel, nostril, throat and abdomen

PROLAPSE

From he Latin for ‘to slide ahead’, in drugs, a prolapse is when part of the physique shifts, or falls out of its correct place — because of this your physician could seek advice from a slipped disc as a ‘prolapsed’ disc.

A prolapsed disc is a typical reason for again ache — right here, one of many discs within the backbone, which act as a cushion between the vertebrae, splits, permitting the gel-like substance inside to bulge out, urgent on nerves within the spinal wire and inflicting ache.

Ladies may expertise prolapse of the pelvic organs, significantly in the event that they’ve had kids — right here, the tissue supporting the bladder, womb, or bowel is weakened, so the organ slips down, urgent into the vagina. It isn’t life-threatening, however is uncomfortable, and might trigger issue urinating and ache throughout intercourse.

The alternative of prolapse is relapse — ‘to fall again’ — however this tends to explain signs or situations which have returned, as a substitute of a bodily motion.

RECESSIVE

All of us have two copies of every gene, one from every father or mother. These genes act because the blueprint for cells and decide traits similar to eye color and hair color.

One is often stronger than the opposite, so will over-ride the directions from its accomplice gene. The stronger is known as dominant; the weaker recessive. For instance, the gene for blue eyes is recessive and the gene for brown eyes dominant, so if a toddler inherits each genes, they are going to have brown eyes.

Recessive genes may set off sure illnesses, similar to cystic fibrosis. The gene that causes this situation is recessive, so if an individual inherits it from one father or mother, it will likely be over-ridden they usually will not have the dysfunction. Nevertheless, in the event that they inherit two copies of the defective gene — one from every father or mother — they are going to develop it.

RHEUMATOID

Rheumatoid is mostly adopted by the phrase ‘arthritis’, the place it refers to irritation within the joints, muscle mass or connective tissue round our physique, inflicting signs similar to ache and stiffness.

The suffix ‘oid’ means it is derived from one other phrase, on this case, rheumatism, which comes from the traditional Greek rheuma, which means stream or circulate. Muscle and joint aches and pains had been regarded as the results of extreme ‘watery’ humours — liquids throughout the physique.

Now, in fact, rheumatoid arthritis is known to be an auto-immune illness, the place the physique assaults the liner of the joints which results in irritation, whereas rheumatism is used as a extra normal medical time period for joint or muscle problems.

Rheumatoid is most commonly followed by the word 'arthritis', where it refers to inflammation in the joints, muscles or connective tissue around our body, causing symptoms such as pain and stiffness

Rheumatoid is mostly adopted by the phrase ‘arthritis’, the place it refers to irritation within the joints, muscle mass or connective tissue round our physique, inflicting signs similar to ache and stiffness

SOMATIC CELLS

Derived from the Greek phrase soma, which means ‘physique’, somatic cells are mainly any cells which have a selected perform or make up a specific tissue within the physique, similar to bone cells, blood cells or liver cells.

Somatic cells are getting used for therapeutic cloning, the place new cells are created in a lab to deal with degenerative illnesses similar to age-related macular degeneration (the place cells within the eye have died).

They may also be used throughout reproductive cloning, as within the case of Dolly the sheep.

Somatic cells have two units of chromosomes, one from every father or mother. That is totally different from sperm cells and egg cells (‘germ line’ cells), which have just one set of chromosomes — these fuse collectively when an egg is fertilised. Gene remedy involving somatic cells shouldn’t be handed on to offspring; modifications to germ line cells are.

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

The sympathetic nervous system is considered one of two components of a wider construction referred to as the autonomic nervous system which controls lots of our involuntary bodily processes similar to heartbeat and respiratory. The opposite half is the parasympathetic nervous system, they usually work in conjunction.

The sympathetic facet is answerable for our ‘flight or struggle’ reactions — for instance, it will increase coronary heart and respiratory charges, blood stress and pupil diameter at occasions of stress or train (the parasympathetic department will exert reverse results). It means we’re extra ready in such conditions; our coronary heart beats stronger and sooner, our respiratory is made extra environment friendly, and areas which aren’t essential at that second — such because the digestive system — are inhibited in order that extra vitality may be spent elsewhere.

The time period ‘sympathetic’ was first utilized by Danish anatomist Jacques-Benigne Winslow within the 1700s, who coined the time period in reference to components of the physique ‘topic to a typical nervous affect’. The phrase sympathetic has origins within the Greek phrase sympathes, which means to ‘have a fellow feeling’.

SYNCOPE

From the Greek for ‘slicing quick’, syncope refers back to the impact of a short lived drop in blood circulate to part of the physique. It typically used to imply fainting, when there’s a lack of consciousness attributable to lowered blood circulate to the mind.

Fainting can happen for quite a few causes. Mostly, it’s all the way down to a short lived malfunction within the autonomic nervous system, which regulates capabilities similar to coronary heart fee and blood stress.

Exterior triggers similar to a nasty shock can set off this malfunction, which in flip results in fainting.

Some individuals could faint after coughing, sneezing or laughing, which might place a sudden pressure on the autonomic nervous system often called ‘situational syncope’. And when fainting is all the way down to a coronary heart drawback interrupting the mind’s blood provide, this is named ‘cardiac syncope’. When there’s coldness or numbness in a small space of the physique from diminished blood circulate, significantly the fingers, it is named ‘native syncope’.

THROMBOLYSIS

Thrombolysis, also called thrombolytic remedy or ‘clot-busting’ therapy, is the identify for medication which dissolve clots blocking blood vessels.

The medication are administered via an intravenous line (IV), or an extended catheter (tube) that delivers medication on to the location of the blockage. Typically a tool will likely be inserted into the catheter to take away the clot. Thrombolysis is commonly used as emergency therapy for stroke when it is attributable to a clot in arteries within the mind — nevertheless, it have to be given inside 4 and a half hours of signs. It is also used to interrupt up blood clots in arteries feeding the center (the principle reason for coronary heart assaults). Clot-busting medication are also given for deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Thrombolysis, also known as thrombolytic therapy or 'clot-busting' treatment, is the name for drugs which dissolve clots blocking blood vessels. The drugs are administered through an intravenous line (IV), or a long catheter (tube) that delivers drugs directly to the site of the blockage

Thrombolysis, also called thrombolytic remedy or ‘clot-busting’ therapy, is the identify for medication which dissolve clots blocking blood vessels. The medication are administered via an intravenous line (IV), or an extended catheter (tube) that delivers medication on to the location of the blockage

TORSION

The time period means ‘twisting’ — mostly affecting the intestines or testicles.

Torsion of the intestines, often called a volvulus, happens when a part of it turns into twisted and loops again on itself, inflicting a blockage.

This could happen at any level within the digestive tract, together with the abdomen, small gut and decrease colon.

Signs fluctuate, however belly ache is commonly essentially the most pronounced.

It’s probably severe as a result of the twist can block blood provide and, if untreated, can result in perforation, peritonitis and will even be deadly.

Testicular torsion happens when the wire from which the testicle hangs turns into twisted.

Usually, the testes can transfer a bit within the scrotum, however some boys are born with a wire that’s too unfastened.

The issue may happen in adults if there’s trauma to the world.

Because of this, the blood provide is reduce off and it shortly turns into painful.

With out corrective surgical procedure — inside six to eight hours — the testicle can die off.

Leave a Comment