A to Z information of complicated medical phrases: From what an epidemiologist does to how cryotherapy works

With phrases similar to epidemiologist, cryotherapy and homeostasis, it could typically really feel unimaginable to grasp medical jargon.

However, the Mail’s well being workforce have minimize by way of the complicated science to clarify precisely what these phrases imply.

With terms such as epidemiologist, cryotherapy and homeostasis, it can sometimes feel impossible to comprehend medical jargon. But, the Mail's health team have cut through the complex science to explain exactly what these words mean in an A to Z glossary

With phrases similar to epidemiologist, cryotherapy and homeostasis, it could typically really feel unimaginable to grasp medical jargon. However, the Mail’s well being workforce have minimize by way of the complicated science to clarify precisely what these phrases imply in an A to Z glossary

ABSCESS

An abscess is a lump that may develop in any a part of your physique, and is because of a build-up of pus.

There are two major varieties — a pores and skin abscess, which develops underneath the pores and skin; and an inside abscess, which types in or round our organs.

Whatever the location, they’re sometimes attributable to a bacterial an infection and will trigger different signs of an infection, similar to a fever and chills.

The phrase has origins from the mid sixteenth century: from Latin abscessus (from the verb abscedere), referring to the separation or elimination of contaminated matter by way of the pus.

Whereas a small abscess could drain naturally or shrink with out remedy, bigger ones may have antibiotics to clear the an infection, adopted by a process to empty the pus.

AMYLOID

The phrase amyloid means ‘starch-like’ an amyloid is an irregular protein made within the bone marrow. 

A build-up of amyloids can result in fibrils (stiff, fibre-like buildings) within the tissues and organs, which disrupt their regular perform.

Amyloids are linked to numerous diseases, together with a gaggle of illnesses referred to as amyloidosis the signs differ relying on the realm affected. The commonest type is Alzheimer’s: right here amyloid plaques type within the mind, affecting cognitive features.

If it is the guts that is affected, amyloidosis can intervene with its capability to pump, leading to coronary heart failure.

There is no such thing as a remedy for amyloidosis, however some sufferers could also be given therapies to cut back the manufacturing of amyloids.

ANEURYSM 

An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel attributable to a weak spot within the vessel wall. 

It could possibly happen within the partitions of any blood vessel, together with these resulting in the guts. 

If an aneurysm ruptures it could trigger sudden lack of blood, which might be deadly.

Aneurysms can develop as the results of a hereditary situation, an acquired illness similar to coronary heart illness, or a extreme head damage. Smoking, hypertension and outdated age can improve the danger.

Aneurysms can develop as the result of a hereditary condition, an acquired disease such as heart disease, or a severe head injury

Aneurysms can develop as the results of a hereditary situation, an acquired illness similar to coronary heart illness, or a extreme head damage

ANTERIOR

In case your physician begins speaking about one thing being ‘anterior’, all they imply is it is on the entrance.

Blood vessels may also be described as ‘anterior’ for instance, the anterior cerebral artery provides oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes of the mind.

‘Anterior’ may also be used to discuss with the placement inside part of the physique, for instance a typical knee damage is a tear to the anterior cruciate ligament.

This band of powerful connecting tissue runs from the entrance to the again of the knee and hyperlinks the entrance of the shin bone (tibia) to the again of the thigh bone (femur).

It will be important for serving to the knee bend, but additionally stopping the joint rotating an excessive amount of.

Its reverse is the posterior cruciate ligament, which connects the again of the shin to the entrance of the thigh.

ANTIGEN

An antigen is a protein that may set off the immune system to react — that is the physique’s method of defending itself in opposition to an infection and illness.

Most antigens come from micro-organisms and toxins within the setting — one other supply is donor tissue utilized in transplants.

Typically, innocent substances, similar to pollen, are misidentified by the immune system as dangerous antigens, leading to an allergic response. This triggers the discharge of the chemical histamine, inflicting signs similar to rashes, itching and facial swelling.

The physique additionally produces antigens — for instance, prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is produced by cells within the prostate gland.

Usually, ranges are low, however raised PSA ranges could be a signal of most cancers or benign situations similar to an enlarged prostate or an an infection. A studying larger than 4 warrants additional investigation for prostate most cancers.

ANTI-OXIDANT

Crimson wine, inexperienced tea and darkish chocolate are all mentioned to have well being advantages as they’re wealthy in anti-oxidants — a kind of chemical that protects us in opposition to rogue molecules referred to as free radicals, which bind to our cells and harm them.

An excessive amount of of this kind of harm is linked to ageing and illnesses similar to age-related macular degeneration and even most cancers. 

Free radicals can come from daylight or meals, however are additionally produced by chemical reactions within the physique. 

Red wine, green tea and dark chocolate are all said to have health benefits as they're rich in anti-oxidants ¿ a type of chemical that protects us against rogue molecules called free radicals, which bind to our cells and damage them

Crimson wine, inexperienced tea and darkish chocolate are all mentioned to have well being advantages as they’re wealthy in anti-oxidants — a kind of chemical that protects us in opposition to rogue molecules referred to as free radicals, which bind to our cells and harm them

Antioxidants bind to free radicals earlier than they’ll connect to cells. The physique makes some antioxidants it wants, however most come from what we eat. 

Widespread varieties are nutritional vitamins C, E and A, resveratrol (in crimson wine) and catechins (in chocolate and inexperienced tea). 

Whereas anti-oxidant wealthy diets (for instance, with a number of fruit and veg) have been discovered to push back most cancers, research present anti-oxidants in complement type do not have the identical impact.

APNOEA

Apnoea is when respiration briefly stops attributable to a blockage within the airway. 

The commonest symptom is loud night breathing, a results of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is attributable to the mushy tissues on the high of the throat collapsing briefly throughout sleep. 

It’s thought to have an effect on 1.5million folks within the UK, and as much as 18million within the US.

In lots of instances persons are unaware they’ve apnoea, as they do not get up when it happens.

Apnoea is when breathing temporarily stops due to a blockage in the airway. The most common symptom is snoring, a result of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is caused by the soft tissues at the top of the throat collapsing temporarily during sleep

Apnoea is when respiration briefly stops attributable to a blockage within the airway. The commonest symptom is loud night breathing, a results of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), which is attributable to the mushy tissues on the high of the throat collapsing briefly throughout sleep

One other (much less frequent) type is central apnoea, the place the brainstem (the decrease a part of the mind, which connects it to the physique) does not perform correctly — both as a result of it isn’t but totally developed in infants, or, in adults, attributable to an damage or trauma. This impacts the medulla, part of the mind that controls respiration.

Apnoea derives from the Historic Greek phrase ‘apnoos’, that means ‘need of breath’.

APOPTOSIS

Apoptosis is the method by the place a cell commits suicide. It’s important to human growth, killing off cells which can be outdated, broken or not wanted.

For instance, apoptosis kills off extra cells to type solely ten toes and ten fingers on infants within the womb. Additionally it is behind menstruation, breaking down tissue lining the uterus.

Some most cancers cells are immune to apoptosis indicators, to allow them to proceed to duplicate. Apoptosis occurs when proteins contained in the cell are activated by a sign from the immune system.

The proteins eat by way of a cell, destroying proteins essential to its survival and cease it replicating. This prompts different cells to clear the remnants of the useless cell.

Apoptosis comes from the Greek for falling off or away from.

APPENDECTOMY

Surgical procedure to take away the appendix is named an appendectomy. 

‘Ectomy’ means to take away one thing with surgical procedure, from the Greek for ‘to chop out’. One other examples is tonsillectomy, to take away tonsils.

Append means ‘so as to add on to’. Within the physique, the appendix is an extra a part of the digestive tract with out an apparent perform. 

Nevertheless, it could grow to be infected (appendicitis) and, if left untreated, can burst, resulting in a doubtlessly deadly an infection.

'Ectomy' means to remove something with surgery, from the Greek for 'to cut out'. Another examples is tonsillectomy, to remove tonsils

‘Ectomy’ means to take away one thing with surgical procedure, from the Greek for ‘to chop out’. One other examples is tonsillectomy, to take away tonsils

To stop this, an appendectomy is carried out, sometimes as a keyhole process. It’s one the commonest procedures.

Phrases that ends in ‘tomy’ slightly than ‘ectomy’ similar to tracheotomy of the throat, means the physique is opened up for exploratory surgical procedure, however nothing is essentially eliminated.

ATAXIA

That is the medical time period for clumsiness. Additionally it is the title given to a gaggle of neurological issues that have an effect on steadiness, coordination and speech.

This kind of ataxia is often attributable to harm to the cerebellum (the area on the base of the mind involved with steadiness), however could be a results of harm to different components of the nervous system. 

It comes from the Greek prefix ‘a’, that means ‘with out’ or ‘not’, and ‘taxis’, that means ‘order’.

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

This time period refers to a situation the place the arteries grow to be narrowed and hardened as a result of build-up of a substance referred to as plaque across the artery wall.

When this occurs, attributable to plaque accumulation, oxygen-rich blood that flows by way of the arteries can’t attain the remainder of the physique effectively.

This could result in numerous illnesses, relying on which arteries are affected.

Probably the most well-known is coronary heart illness, when blood movement within the arteries surrounding the guts is restricted. This could result in angina (chest ache) or, in additional severe instances, a coronary heart assault.

The time period is a conjugation of the Greek phrases ‘athere’ that means ‘groats’ and sclerosis’, that means ‘hardening’.

ATOPY

Atopy is the time period for a genetic tendency to develop allergic reactions — the phrase comes from the Greek phrase atopos, that means misplaced or extraordinary.

Atopy is understood to run in households, and people affected typically endure from a number of allergy symptoms without delay — mostly eczema, bronchial asthma or hay fever. Some endure from all three situations, often known as the ‘allergic triad’, and most may even have meals allergy symptoms and different reactions.

These allergy symptoms might be recognized by way of a pores and skin prick check, which can present up larger ranges of antibodies referred to as immunoglobulin E, which the physique produces to struggle a perceived risk, or allergen, throughout an allergic response.

Outcomes of this pores and skin check may determine the precise allergen that’s inflicting the response so the sufferer is aware of what to keep away from.

ATROPHY

Atrophy comes from the Greek prefix ‘a-‘ that means ‘with out’ and ‘trophe’ that means ‘meals’.

Atrophy is perhaps best known in the context of muscle atrophy, often seen in patients who have restricted mobility (from hospitalisation or wheelchair use, for instance)

Atrophy is probably finest recognized within the context of muscle atrophy, typically seen in sufferers who’ve restricted mobility (from hospitalisation or wheelchair use, as an illustration)

It’s the losing away of an organ or tissue (both utterly or partially).

It is maybe finest recognized within the context of muscle atrophy, typically seen in sufferers who’ve restricted mobility (from hospitalisation or wheelchair use, as an illustration), the place lack of bodily exercise over a protracted time frame results in decreased muscle mass.

One of these muscle atrophy known as physiologic atrophy there are two different varieties, pathologic and neurogenic.

Pathologic atrophy might be attributable to ageing, malnutrition and illnesses similar to Cushing’s.

Neurogenic atrophy may result from an damage to the muscle or its nerve provide.

BENIGN

When a situation is known as benign, it suggests it isn’t harmful or significantly severe. 

Benign is usually used to explain a tumour. 

It means the expansion will not be cancerous and is not rising in a short time. 

The precise reason for a benign development is unknown, however outcomes from cells dividing and rising at a quicker fee than they’re dying off.

It’s the similar underlying mechanism that leads to cancerous growths, however these develop even quicker and might unfold to different areas. Benign growths — moles are one instance — can type anyplace however could not pose a risk to well being.

Nevertheless, if sufficiently big, or in the event that they develop near the mind, nerves or organs, they could trigger some signs. A benign mind tumour, as an illustration, could trigger complications or eyesight issues.

Benign is derived from the Latin phrase ‘benignus’ — the prefix ‘bene’ that means effectively and suffix ‘genus’ that means delivery.

BIOPSY

A biopsy is when a tissue pattern is taken for nearer examination: cells are checked out underneath a microscope. 

After the pattern is eliminated, it is taken to a lab, the place it is minimize and sliced, then stained with varied dyes, which correspond to totally different markers of illness, and examined.

Mostly, biopsies are used to verify a lump or swelling for most cancers. However they’ll additionally affirm diagnoses similar to hepatitis or assist to clarify why some girls have irregular durations.

Relying on the situation, every biopsy takes a barely totally different quantity of tissue. Typically it is sufficient to scrape an space with a brush-like gadget, similar to with smear exams on the cervix. With different areas, such because the liver or abdomen lining, extra cells are taken utilizing tiny needles.

Biopsies are when a tissue sample is taken for closer examination, most commonly to check if lumps or swellings for cancer

Biopsies are when a tissue pattern is taken for nearer examination, mostly to verify if lumps or swellings for most cancers

BRITTLE

The time period is used to explain bronchial asthma and sort 1 diabetes when it is grow to be tough to manage and unpredictable, regardless of the affected person taking the best treatment. 

Sufferers with brittle bronchial asthma and diabetes are regularly hospitalised. About 0.05 per cent of the 5.4million folks with bronchial asthma within the UK and 25million within the US are thought to have the brittle sort. 

Most could have issue respiration nearly all the time, in addition to frequent severe, life-threatening bronchial asthma assaults. 

Brittle diabetes is extra uncommon, affecting about three in 1,000 folks with sort 1 diabetes — which is when the physique is unable to make insulin, the hormone that mops up glucose from the bloodstream. 

Brittle sort 1 diabetes can result in frequent excessive swings in blood sugar ranges, inflicting hyperglycemia, when blood sugar is dangerously excessive, or hypoglycemia, when it’s dangerously low.

CARCINOGENIC

Most cancers is attributable to modifications in a cell’s blueprint, or DNA.

Some modifications could also be inherited from our mother and father, others could also be attributable to outdoors elements similar to smoking, UV gentle, sure chemical substances, cleansing merchandise and air pollution. These are often known as carcinogens.

Carcinogens can immediately change DNA, or result in most cancers in different methods. For instance, they could trigger cells to divide at a quicker fee, rising the possibility of DNA modifications occurring.

Some changes may be inherited from our parents, others may be caused by outside factors such as smoking, UV light, certain chemicals, cleaning products and pollution. These are known as carcinogens

Some modifications could also be inherited from our mother and father, others could also be attributable to outdoors elements similar to smoking, UV gentle, sure chemical substances, cleansing merchandise and air pollution. These are often known as carcinogens

Carcinogens don’t trigger most cancers in each case. Substances labelled as carcinogens could have totally different ranges of cancer-causing potential. Some could trigger most cancers solely after extended, excessive ranges of publicity.

And for any particular person, the danger of growing most cancers is determined by many elements, together with their genetic make-up.

CERVICAL

Cervical means ‘pertaining to the neck’ and comes from the Latin for neck, cervix.

Cervical spondylosis or cervical osteoarthritis is a degenerative situation affecting the joints within the neck, inflicting ache and stiffness within the neck, arms and shoulders.

Some persons are born with a cervical rib, an additional one which types above the traditional first rib (on the backside of the neck).

The cervical rib is principally an overdeveloped model of the bottom neck bone.

However ‘cervical’ is not simply used to discuss with the bit your head sits on — it’s used to discuss with the slender a part of any organ or construction.

As an illustration, the cervix — also referred to as the neck of the womb — is the decrease, slender a part of the uterus, which extends into the vagina and is made up of easy muscle tissue that may stretch throughout being pregnant and childbirth.

Even tooth have a cervix — the narrowed half that sits within the gum between the crown and the foundation.

For instance, the cervix ¿ also known as the neck of the womb ¿ is the lower, narrow part of the uterus, which extends into the vagina and is made up of smooth muscle tissue that can stretch during pregnancy and childbirth

As an illustration, the cervix — also referred to as the neck of the womb — is the decrease, slender a part of the uterus, which extends into the vagina and is made up of easy muscle tissue that may stretch throughout being pregnant and childbirth

CHROMOSOMES

Chromosomes are the tiny threads of DNA — our genetic blueprint — held within the centre of every human cell.

The phrase chromosome comes from Greek — ‘chromo’ means color, ‘soma’ means physique.

The title was coined by Heinrich Waldeyer in 1888 just a few years after one other scientist, Walther Flemming, recognized these fibres contained in the cell utilizing dyes to look at them underneath a microscope.

The DNA in chromosomes accommodates our genes, that are principally directions to our physique that now we have inherited from our mother and father.

Genes are organized in a sure order on the chromosomes — every cell accommodates 23 pairs of chromosomes (the pairs are made up of 1 chromosome from every father or mother) and about 30,000 genes. This implies now we have two copies of each gene — the one exception is the intercourse chromosomes, X and Y. Girls have two X chromosomes whereas males have one among every — XY — so that they have just a few genes discovered solely on the Y chromosome.

CILIA

These are the tiny, hair-like buildings discovered on nearly each cell in our our bodies. They prolong roughly 0.1mm outwards from the cells. There are two varieties, motile cilia (‘shifting’ cilia) and non-motile.

Motile cilia continually beat in a single route, to allow them to assist cells transfer round and in addition transfer fluid alongside. They’re often on a cell’s floor, and there are a lot of of them on every cell, shifting in co-ordinated waves.

Motile cilia are discovered within the lining of the windpipe, the place they sweep mucus and filth out of the lungs.

Usually a cell has just one non-motile cilium, which is concerned in necessary processes similar to sensing its setting.

Within the eye, they assist maintain collectively totally different components of light-sensitive cells.

Illnesses attributable to issues with the cilia — often the nonmotile cilia — are referred to as ciliopathies and are often genetic. These embrace retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited eye illness, and polycystic kidney illness, the place fluid-filled cysts develop within the kidneys, which causes progressive renal failure.

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM

Any exercise within the physique that follows a every day sample (similar to our cycle of sleeping then waking) is named a circadian rhythm.

Any activity in the body that follows a daily pattern (such as our cycle of sleeping then waking) is known as a circadian rhythm

Any exercise within the physique that follows a every day sample (similar to our cycle of sleeping then waking) is named a circadian rhythm

The phrase comes from the Latin circa, that means round, and dies, that means day.

Different examples of circadian rhythms embrace our physique temperature, which fluctuates all through the day, often reaching its lowest level throughout deep sleep.

Circadian rhythms present our inside physique clock in motion. All our physique’s exercise is ruled by a ‘grasp clock’, positioned within the hypothalamus within the mind, which sends indicators to different components of the physique to maintain us working on time.

CONTRAINDICATION

A contraindication is a medical cause why a sure remedy or process is inadvisable for a affected person.

There are two forms of contraindications — relative and absolute. With a relative contraindication, warning must be used when two medicine or procedures are used collectively (however it might be acceptable to make use of them each if the advantages outweigh the dangers). 

For instance, sufferers taking the blood thinner warfarin are often suggested to keep away from aspirin, which additionally thins the blood, due to the bleeding danger.

An absolute contraindication is when a drugs or process must be prevented; for instance, the zits drug isotretinoin (often known as Roaccutane) shouldn’t be taken in being pregnant as a result of danger of delivery defects.

CRYOTHERAPY

Also referred to as chilly remedy, cryotherapy consists of an array of therapies that make use of extraordinarily low temperatures.

Certainly one of its finest recognized makes use of entails eradicating areas of pores and skin similar to warts and basal cell carcinomas (a typical type of pores and skin most cancers). 

The affected pores and skin is ‘frozen’ with a liquid nitrogen spray for 5 to 10 seconds, which kills off the rogue cells. Some main cancers may also be handled. In prostate most cancers, for instance, a needle inserts ‘freezing’ fuel (on this case, argon) into the prostate to kill most cancers cells.

Also known as cold therapy, cryotherapy includes an array of treatments that employ extremely low temperatures. Portugal World Cup star Cristiano Ronaldo is a fan of cryotherapy. Ronaldo posed alongside his son outside a cryotherapy chamber for a social media snap earlier this year

Also referred to as chilly remedy, cryotherapy consists of an array of therapies that make use of extraordinarily low temperatures. Portugal World Cup star Cristiano Ronaldo is a fan of cryotherapy. Ronaldo posed alongside his son outdoors a cryotherapy chamber for a social media snap earlier this 12 months

Entire-body cryotherapy, which entails standing in a chamber cooled to lower than -100c, is typically advisable for sure muscle and joint-related situations.

DIURETIC

A diuretic is any substance that will increase the quantity of water excreted from the physique. The phrase comes from the Greek phrases ‘dia’, that means by way of, and ‘ouron’, that means urine.

Some analysis means that sure meals and drinks, together with blueberries, pineapple, tea and occasional, are pure diuretics.

In medication, diuretics are sometimes prescribed to folks with hypertension, coronary heart failure or sure forms of liver or kidney issues as a result of they have an inclination to have a build-up of extra physique fluid, which contributes to their downside.

So-called ‘water drugs’ are used primarily to cut back blood strain, as eliminating water and salt from the blood reduces the quantity of labor the guts has to do to pump it around the physique.

Athletes are banned from utilizing diuretics as a result of they’ll dilute doping brokers of their urine, making drug exams unreliable.

DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL

‘Blinding’ is a technique used to make the outcomes of medical trials extra dependable.

The accepted finest observe for testing a brand new remedy is to match it with an present remedy or a placebo (a dummy remedy, similar to a sugar capsule or saline resolution). 

If a trial is ‘blind’ it means the contributors do not know in the event that they’re getting the true remedy or not. If a trial is ‘double blind’, the researchers additionally do not know.

It is necessary for sufferers to be ‘blind’ as a result of typically if folks assume they’re getting a brand new remedy they really feel higher no matter how effectively it is really working and this could skew the outcomes.

'Blinding' is a method used to make the results of clinical trials more reliable. The accepted best practice for testing a new treatment is to compare it with an existing treatment or a placebo (a dummy treatment, such as a sugar pill or saline solution)

‘Blinding’ is a technique used to make the outcomes of medical trials extra dependable. The accepted finest observe for testing a brand new remedy is to match it with an present remedy or a placebo (a dummy remedy, similar to a sugar capsule or saline resolution)

If researchers additionally do not know which contributors have acquired the true remedy, this prevents bias in the case of recording the outcomes, particularly as these aren’t at all times goal measures similar to blood strain, however might be an evaluation of how a lot ache somebody is in.

Whereas a double-blind trial is comparatively easy for brand new medicine (placebo drugs might be made to look the identical), it isn’t at all times attainable — similar to when testing surgical strategies.

DYSPLASIA

Dysplasia is when tissues, cells and even bones are malformed.

The time period derives from the Historic Greek dys, that means dangerous and plasis, that means formation. Dysplasia of the cells is a pre-cancerous situation.

For instance, following a smear check, a girl could be discovered to have irregular cells, which can imply the cells are pre-cancerous and would require additional testing.

This can be carried out within the type of a biopsy, which entails taking a small pattern of physique tissue, or a colposcopy, when a microscope is used to look at the cervix.

Cervical dysplasia might be handled by freezing irregular cells, laser remedy, eradicating the affected tissue utilizing electrical energy or eradicating a small a part of the cervix.

One other instance is hip dysplasia, which is when the joint is misaligned. Extreme instances might be handled with surgical procedure to alter the positioning of the hip socket or substitute the joint.

ECTOPIC

The phrase is believed to return from the Greek ektopos, that means ‘misplaced’. It’s utilized in a medical context to explain a physique construction present in an irregular place, or a perform that happens on the incorrect time.

For instance, an ectopic being pregnant is the place the embryo develops in a fallopian tube slightly than within the uterus.

In the meantime, an ectopic heartbeat is a contraction of the guts muscle that is out of the traditional rhythm.

These ectopic beats are often innocent and might happen even when your coronary heart is in any other case wholesome. Typically they’re triggered by stimulants similar to caffeine and alcohol.

Nevertheless, a number of ectopic beats may cause palpitations — the feeling of feeling your coronary heart beating — and on this case, it is best to see a health care provider.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system is made up of glands responsible for the production and release of hormones needed for metabolism, growth, stress and sexual function. These glands include the ovaries, testes, pancreas, and adrenal glands, which release hormones directly into the bloodstream

The endocrine system is made up of glands chargeable for the manufacturing and launch of hormones wanted for metabolism, development, stress and sexual perform. These glands embrace the ovaries, testes, pancreas, and adrenal glands, which launch hormones immediately into the bloodstream

The endocrine system is made up of glands chargeable for the manufacturing and launch of hormones wanted for metabolism, development, stress and sexual perform. 

These glands embrace the ovaries, testes, pancreas, and adrenal glands, which launch hormones immediately into the bloodstream. 

The endocrine system is monitored by the pituitary gland discovered on the entrance of the mind close to the nostril — which, in flip, studies to the hypothalamus, an space of the mind chargeable for temperature management, starvation and sleep, and which can assist alter hormone secretion in response to the physique’s wants. 

Ageing, drugs and illnesses can result in the over or underneath secretion of hormones. And now some scientists have famous that Covid can result in hormone-related issues, presumably as a result of the virus assaults the pituitary gland. 

ENDOTHELIUM

This refers to a layer of cells that acts as a lining for blood vessels, the guts, and the lymphatic ducts — which drain lymph fluid, an necessary a part of the immune system, from the tissues and again into the bloodstream.

The cells of the endothelium are skinny and flat, giving a easy floor which helps the movement of lymph and blood and helps stop blood clots.

‘Endo’ comes from the Greek for ‘inside’ or ‘inside’, whereas ‘ium’ merely means tissue or construction (equally, the endometrium is the time period for the liner of the womb).

The time period epithelium refers back to the outer layer of cells that covers the whole floor of the physique, together with the pores and skin — ‘epi’ comes from the Greek for ‘upon’ — in addition to the cells lining hole organs and glands.

ENZYME

Enzymes are massive proteins discovered naturally within the physique that play a key position in rushing up chemical processes — for instance, the enzyme pepsin is concerned within the breakdown of proteins within the abdomen into smaller items (often known as peptides) that may then be extra simply absorbed by the physique.

There are roughly 75,000 forms of enzyme discovered within the physique, and most will solely work underneath very exact situations. Pepsin, as an illustration, wants the acidic setting of the abdomen.

There are additionally enzymes which restore the DNA in cells, and these have been prompt as the brand new miracle employees of skincare.

Though nothing can substitute sufficient solar safety, a 2001 examine within the Lancet demonstrated that these enzymes may assist scale back the danger of pores and skin most cancers by as much as 68 per cent.

EPIDEMIOLOGIST

An epidemiologist studies patterns of disease in a population, for instance looking at which diseases occur where, how they are spreading, and/or their links to factors such as diet and lifestyle. Pictured, Imperial College London epidemiologist Professor Neil Ferguson, who was given the nickname 'Professor Lockdown', whose projections persuaded No10 into adopting tough restrictions

An epidemiologist research patterns of illness in a inhabitants, as an illustration which illnesses happen the place, how they’re spreading, and/or their hyperlinks to elements similar to weight-reduction plan and life-style. Pictured, Imperial School London epidemiologist Professor Neil Ferguson, who was given the nickname ‘Professor Lockdown’, whose projections persuaded No10 into adopting powerful restrictions

An epidemiologist research patterns of illness in a inhabitants, as an illustration which illnesses happen the place, how they’re spreading, and/or their hyperlinks to elements similar to weight-reduction plan and life-style.

They typically work inside authorities well being departments or universities and their findings can affect coverage and plans to keep away from, or take care of, outbreaks.

Nevertheless, critics say that these sorts of commentary aren’t the identical as figuring out a trigger — and so it’s incorrect to alter coverage primarily based on such findings alone.

ESR (ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE)

For those who’ve had blood exams for an an infection, you in all probability had your erythrocyte sedimentation fee (ESR) checked — even when you did not realise.

This blood check measures irritation ranges. In addition to an infection, it could level to situations, similar to rheumatoid arthritis, and monitor them.

The check evaluates the speed at which crimson blood cells fall in a check tube. The phrase ‘erythrocyte’ means crimson blood cells and ‘sedimentation’ describes their motion.

In a affected person with little irritation, the cells fall slowly, leaving plasma (the straw-coloured liquid in blood) on the high. With larger ranges of irritation, cells fall quicker.

It’s because there are extra proteins, that are generated as a part of the physique’s defence mechanism in opposition to an infection.

FLAVONOID

Flavonoids are compounds present in meals similar to fruit and veggies, in addition to in tea and crimson wine.

It's good news for chocolate lovers! Cocoa contains flavonols, which are a class of flavonoids

It is excellent news for chocolate lovers! Cocoa accommodates flavonols, that are a category of flavonoids

They’re mentioned to have antioxidant properties, which suggests they’ll scale back the harm prompted to the physique’s cells by free radicals.

Free radicals are dangerous molecules which can be produced by environmental elements similar to air pollution, but additionally by the physique’s personal processes, similar to respiration.

Flavonoids might also assist to stop blood clots.

Consultants recommend together with extra flavonoid-rich meals in your weight-reduction plan to guard in opposition to illnesses together with most cancers.

That is excellent news for chocolate lovers, as cocoa accommodates flavonols, that are a category of flavonoids.

FREE RADICAL

A free radical is an atom, or group of atoms (often known as a molecule) with an odd variety of electrons — the negatively charged particles contained in the atom.

This odd quantity means they’re very reactive and might bind to cells within the physique.

Free radicals are produced within the physique throughout regular metabolic processes, however may come from exterior sources similar to smoke, daylight and meals. It has lengthy been thought that free radicals are damaging and trigger ageing and illness, however current analysis means that the other could, the truth is, be true.

Scientists at McGill College in Montreal, Canada, say that extra free radicals are produced throughout ageing as a result of the molecules really assist struggle, slightly than trigger, the ageing course of, rising a cell’s defences and boosting its lifespan.

GENE EXPRESSION

Gene expression is the method during which sure genes inside our cells are turned on and off.

Each cell in a human physique could have all their genes in it (within the type of our DNA, our genetic blueprint), however solely a small fraction of those genes are ever turned on or ‘expressed’.

It is this course of that can decide every cell’s perform. That is how one cell may find yourself being necessary to your coronary heart, whereas one other cell makes bone.

When genes are activated, this in flip causes proteins to be made.

Proteins might be something from enzymes to mind chemical substances, which management all the things from hair color to immunity. Analysis has proven that environmental elements similar to treatment, temperature and light-weight may have an affect on which genes are turned on and off.

GENOME

The genome is the time period for our total set of genes. It’s typically what folks imply after they discuss with DNA.

Our DNA is the hereditary materials that’s distinctive to every of us.

Sections of DNA are often known as genes, and act as totally different units of directions for constructing and sustaining our cells.

Our ‘genome’ refers to all these genes as an entire. The time period was first utilized in 1920 by a German botanist referred to as Hans Winkler.

A global endeavour referred to as the Human Genome Venture was launched in 1990 to develop the expertise after which analyse the human genome.

The genome is the term for our entire set of genes. It is often what people mean when they refer to DNA. Our DNA is the hereditary material that is unique to each of us

The genome is the time period for our total set of genes. It’s typically what folks imply after they discuss with DNA. Our DNA is the hereditary materials that’s distinctive to every of us

The mission was accomplished in 2003, that means that, for the primary time, each human gene had been recognized.

GOLD STANDARD

In medication, ‘gold commonplace’ means the most effective accessible.

The time period was first utilized in a medical context within the Seventies.

It tends to explain exams to diagnose situations.

In idea, the gold commonplace is a check that by no means misses illness, however does not detect illness the place there may be none.

Nevertheless, good diagnostic exams will not be at all times attainable on a dwelling individual, and the ‘gold commonplace’ check could change as extra correct strategies are found.

The time period might also be used to explain the most effective remedy, though right here, docs typically use ‘first-line’ as an alternative.

In coronary heart assaults, the gold commonplace remedy is main angioplasty.

This emergency process (a tiny balloon is inflated in an artery blocked by a clot inside hours of assault) restores blood movement and clears blockage in 9 out of ten sufferers.

Just lately, the Royal School of Physicians spoke of the necessity for a ‘gold commonplace’ of take care of aged sufferers.

With the Royal School of Nursing, British Geriatrics Society and Age UK, it has devised the Elder-Pleasant High quality Mark, to be awarded to hospitals that may show a excessive commonplace of take care of weak older folks.

HAEMOGLOBIN 

That is the protein wanted to make crimson blood cells and is chargeable for transporting oxygen across the physique low ranges can result in tiredness and shortness of breath.

Usually this is because of an absence of iron, a mineral important for haemoglobin manufacturing. Haemoglobin ranges may drop considerably attributable to lack of blood or sickness.

Ranges of haemoglobin naturally differ between folks, however males are likely to have larger ranges in all probability due to the differing results of hormones onerythropoiesis, the method the place the physique creates crimson blood cells. Iron deficiency is handled by dietary modifications and iron dietary supplements out of your GP.

Haemoglobin is the protein needed to make red blood cells and is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body low levels can lead to tiredness and shortness of breath

Haemoglobin is the protein wanted to make crimson blood cells and is chargeable for transporting oxygen across the physique low ranges can result in tiredness and shortness of breath

The time period ‘haemoglobin’ is from the Greek ‘haemato’ that means blood, and ‘globulin’ is from the Latin ‘globus’ for ‘ball or sphere’.

HOMEOSTASIS

Homeostasis is Greek for ‘similar state’. 

Medically, it refers back to the automated processes the physique makes use of to keep up its inside situations, similar to physique temperature. 

As an illustration, an indication of homeostasis is sweating after a exercise — your overheated physique is making an attempt to return to its regular temperature. 

Most of our necessary organs, such because the liver, kidneys and mind, are concerned in homeostasis. 

It is sort of a automobile’s cruise management, the place expertise responds to exterior modifications to stay at a relentless pace. 

Coronary heart failure, diabetes and dehydration are situations the place homeostasis has failed.

IMMUNOGLOBULIN

Immunogloblins are also referred to as antibodies — these are molecules made by white blood cells in response to an an infection attributable to viruses or micro organism.

A blood check can inform if in case you have larger immunoglobulin ranges, which could point out you might be preventing an an infection; or decrease ranges, that are an indication the immune system is not working in addition to it ought to.

There are 5 forms of immunoglobulin, every starting with the abbreviation ‘Ig’ and located in numerous areas of the physique. IgG is the commonest; IgE is the one which causes allergic reactions, triggering signs.

INFARCTION

The physique’s tissue, muscular tissues and organs depend on a provide of oxygen-rich blood for important vitamins.

A blood clot or damage can imply that offer is minimize off, often known as an ischaemia.

The impact of that is an infarction: the place the tissue dies. This could happen anyplace within the physique however ‘infarction’ is often used within the context of a coronary heart assault (myocardial infarction). An infarction within the mind, inflicting a stroke, known as a cerebral infarction.

The body's tissue, muscles and organs rely on a supply of oxygen-rich blood for essential nutrients. A blood clot or injury can mean that supply is cut off, known as an ischaemia

The physique’s tissue, muscular tissues and organs depend on a provide of oxygen-rich blood for important vitamins. A blood clot or damage can imply that offer is minimize off, often known as an ischaemia

ISOTONIC

It is a time period you typically see on sports activities drink labels however ‘isotonic’ is not only a advertising and marketing gimmick. 

The phrase — from the Greek isos (equal) and tonos (tone) — means a liquid has the same focus of sugar, salt and minerals as our blood and cells.

An isotonic drink replenishes fluid and salts misplaced by way of sweating, in addition to restocking power shops. 

It should include round 4-8 per cent carbohydrate — round one to 2 teaspoons of sugar per 100ml water. 

The additional power and minerals — similar to potassium and chloride — are solely wanted after exercising for greater than an hour. Sports activities drinks may also be labelled ‘hypotonic’, which suggests they include much less sugar and salt than our regular blood focus.

These assist the physique rehydrate, however with out the power enhance — they’re useful for train that does not essentially burn plenty of energy. ‘Hypertonic’ drinks, then again, have a better focus of sugar and minerals and assist throughout endurance train.

LAPARATOMY

This can be a common time period meaning opening up the stomach. In medication, ‘tomy’ means ‘to chop into’ and ‘laparo’ means stomach wall, from the Greek for flank.

Equally, tracheotomy refers to opening up the windpipe the trachea and episiotomy, a minimize made throughout labour to create extra room to ship the child, comes by way of ‘episi’, which suggests pubic area or loins.

A widely known however defunct instance is lobotomy, used to deal with a variety of psychological diseases within the twentieth century. This was the slicing away of the connections to and from the frontal lobes within the mind.

The incision for laparotomy might be made up and down, so from the stomach button to the bikini line, or throughout the abdomen.

As it’s an open surgical process, it tends for use solely when a much less invasive keyhole process, often known as a laparoscopy, will not be attainable. With laparoscopy, incisions roughly 1cm to 2cm lengthy are made to permit the insertion of a digicam on a versatile tube to diagnose issues with the stomach, reproductive organs or pelvis.

LESION

A lesion is an space of tissue that has been broken on account of damage, illness, ageing or an infection. 

Lesions can seem as wounds, ulcers and abscesses, in addition to tumours. 

The phrase comes from the Latin laesio, from laedere, which suggests to injure, harm or harm.

A lesion is an area of tissue that has been damaged as a result of injury, disease, ageing or infection. Lesions can appear as wounds, ulcers and abscesses, as well as tumours

A lesion is an space of tissue that has been broken on account of damage, illness, ageing or an infection. Lesions can seem as wounds, ulcers and abscesses, in addition to tumours

LYMPH NODES

Spherical or bean-shaped, these assist to guard us in opposition to invading micro organism and viruses.

The nodes, discovered everywhere in the physique however in clusters in sure areas, such because the groin and armpits, are the truth is not glands. 

They’re balls of tissue that lure micro organism and viruses in lymph — the watery fluid that circulates in lymph vessels to hold toxins away from the tissue.

The phrase ‘lymph’ comes from the Latin lympha, which pertains to water.

Inside lymph are lymphocytes, cells that assist struggle off invading micro organism and viruses. Lymphocytes can alert different killer cells of an assault, which is why the nodes in our armpits or groin could grow to be swollen after we are unwell.

MAXILLOFACIAL

Maxillofacial refers to something involving the jaw, face and neck.

The maxilla is the realm of the cranium comprising the centre of the face, the higher jaw and the roof of the mouth.

It’s shaped of two bones, which fuse collectively in the midst of the face.

Maxillofacial ache refers to any ache within the jaw or face — oral and maxillofacial surgeons concentrate on illnesses affecting this space. Specialists who work on this discipline are required to have a twin diploma in medication and dentistry.

METABOLISM

Generally used to explain how rapidly we digest meals, metabolism really covers an enormous variety of chemical reactions continually occurring within the physique.

These fall broadly into two major varieties. The primary is catabolism, the place bigger substances similar to meals are damaged down, releasing power. With the second, anabolism, smaller substances (similar to vitamins in meals) mix to type different substances, utilizing up power.

Docs use the phrase ‘basal metabolic fee’ (BMR) to discuss with the bottom base degree of power wanted for these fixed chemical reactions to happen, however we generally discuss with this as metabolism.

The pace of metabolism is determined by age, gender, genes and weight — youthful folks, males and people with extra muscle are likely to have quicker charges. However there isn’t any proof {that a} sluggish metabolism is a cause for weight achieve.

Commonly used to describe how quickly we digest food, metabolism actually covers a vast number of chemical reactions constantly occurring in the body. These fall broadly into two main types. The first is catabolism, where larger substances such as food are broken down, releasing energy

Generally used to explain how rapidly we digest meals, metabolism really covers an enormous variety of chemical reactions continually occurring within the physique. These fall broadly into two major varieties. The primary is catabolism, the place bigger substances similar to meals are damaged down, releasing power

METASTATIC

Metastatic refers to a illness spreading from its origin within the physique. It’s usually used to explain most cancers that has unfold to a different a part of the physique.

However it is usually used for infections, together with these attributable to micro organism similar to staphylococcus aureus, which have travelled from the realm the place the an infection first began.

Metastatic infections may end up in severe situations similar to infective endocarditis — which impacts the liner of the chambers of the guts and is often attributable to micro organism that travels from the mouth.

In metastatic most cancers, the most cancers cells break free from the place they shaped and journey elsewhere within the physique, often by way of the blood or lymph system. A metastatic most cancers is identical sort as the unique. So, if breast most cancers cells unfold to the lung, they’re nonetheless breast most cancers cells not lung most cancers.

METATARSAL

We have now 5 lengthy bones in the midst of our toes referred to as the metatarsal bones. They connect the ankle to the toes (the toe bones are referred to as the ‘phalanges’), and run parallel to one another in an arch form, mirroring the skin mould of the foot.

The phrase metatarsal comes from Medieval Latin: meta, that means between; and tarsus from the Historic Greek phrase tarsos, which described the only real of the foot.

The commonest metatarsal damage is a ‘fifth metatarsal fracture’, describing a crack or break within the metatarsal bone on the periphery of every foot, typically sustained enjoying sport.

One other damage is metatarsalgia, a painful situation the place the entrance of the only real of your foot or the bottom of your toes — turns into infected.

This may be attributable to tight footwear or being chubby, which each put pressure on the muscular tissues and bones within the foot.

Remedy consists of resting the foot, taking painkillers or utilizing metatarsal pads mushy gel helps which can be worn in your footwear to alleviate strain on the realm.

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY

Monoclonal antibodies are molecules which can be made in a laboratory and engineered to assist the immune system. They’re used to deal with numerous illnesses together with most cancers, in addition to extreme allergic bronchial asthma.

In most cancers, the monoclonal antibodies (or mAbs) work by attaching onto antigens on the most cancers cells — these are the substances that usually set off the immune system to provide antibodies. The mAbs ‘flag’ the most cancers cell to the immune system, so it could destroy it. These man-made molecules additionally assist some signs of allergy — together with extreme bronchial asthma and nettle rash. Right here they aim molecules on the physique’s IGE antibodies, that are concerned in triggering a response; the mAbs dampen down their impact.

In February, the US Meals and Drug Administration additionally authorised two present monoclonal antibody medicine to deal with gentle Covid. This adopted profitable trials of the drug mixture in treating 1,000 sufferers prone to their situation worsening.

MUTATION

Cells within the physique are continually dividing and copying themselves as a part of regular development and restore — changing these that are useless or broken.

However typically as a part of this course of they make a mistake in copying DNA — the directions for our genes — and, when this occurs, they mutate.

The extra this error repeats by way of additional division, the extra mutated cells mount up.

Typically these cells can die out with out inflicting any hurt. Nevertheless, in different instances they are often dangerous, turning right into a tumour which might be cancerous, or, if the mutation happens in sperm or egg cells, leading to delivery defects or hereditary illnesses.

The phrase mutate comes from the Latin mutare that means to alter. Viruses may expertise these copying errors, resulting in variants.

Though some viruses (similar to herpes and smallpox) include DNA, they’ll have an alternate genetic instruction referred to as RNA or ribonucleic acid (similar to Covid-19 and Ebola) as an alternative. These with RNA mutate at a quicker fee. Most mutations are thought to happen naturally. Nevertheless, typically an exterior issue (a mutagen) can set off the change — as an illustration, publicity to radioactive substances.

The word mutate comes from the Latin mutare meaning to change. Viruses can also experience these copying errors, leading to variants

The phrase mutate comes from the Latin mutare that means to alter. Viruses may expertise these copying errors, resulting in variants

MYALGIA

That is the medical time period for muscle ache, which is extraordinarily frequent. As a result of nearly each a part of the physique has muscle tissue, it may be felt anyplace. It often impacts a small variety of muscular tissues at a time.

Often the trigger is straightforward to pinpoint — most instances are attributable to stress, stress or bodily exercise. Circumstances such because the flu and lupus (an autoimmune illness) in addition to some drugs (together with statins and ACE inhibitors) may cause myalgia as a side-effect, although sufferers could not hyperlink the medicine to their muscle ache.

It is attainable to develop myalgia all through the physique. As much as one in 20 Britons are affected by fibromyalgia, a long-term, incurable situation that causes ache everywhere in the physique. It impacts seven occasions extra girls than males.

Polymyalgia rheumatica, an autoimmune dysfunction the place the immune system assaults the physique, causes ache, stiffness and tenderness within the massive muscular tissues, sometimes the shoulders, higher arms and hips.

Steroids to cut back the irritation can assist. It is not clear what causes both situation.

NEUROTRANSMITTER

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers within the physique that transmit indicators from nerve cells to different cells, similar to these within the muscular tissues and glands, or to different nerves.

The phrase is derived from a mixture of the Greek time period neura, that means one thing that pertains to a nerve or ‘sinew or bowstring’, and the Latin transmittere, that means ‘ship throughout’.

There are two various kinds of neurotransmitters: excitatory, which fireplace up exercise within the nerve cells; and inhibitory, which calm or sluggish them down.

Serotonin, for instance, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the mind and intestine, and is linked with anxiousness and melancholy.

OFF-LABEL

Typically, a medication might be prescribed for a situation that it hasn’t been licensed for treating.

For instance, the drug amitriptyline is licensed to deal with melancholy, however docs additionally prescribe it for power ache as a result of it relaxes the muscular tissues, aiding sleep, and will relieve anxiousness ensuing from the ache.

This is named ‘off-label’ prescribing, the place docs train their medical judgment to prescribe medicines for sure situations as they see match.

This doesn’t imply the remedy is unsafe, however slightly that the drug’s security and efficacy has not been correctly examined in medical trials for this explicit use.

Though it’s utterly authorized for them to make use of their judgment on this method, docs are typically reluctant to prescribe medicine off-label as a result of, in idea, they might be legally liable if one thing ought to go incorrect.

PALLIATIVE

The time period palliative originates from the Latin palliativus, that means ‘underneath cloak’ or ‘covert’. It’s a type of specialised take care of sufferers who’ve severe diseases similar to most cancers, with the goal of offering consolation and aid.

The objective can be to assist the household or carers of the affected person and to supply a holistic method to their care, together with non secular and psychological issues. Palliative care is typically confused with end-of-life care — nevertheless, sufferers who’re receiving palliative care do not essentially have a terminal sickness.

Palliative care ought to ideally start as quickly as analysis of a severe sickness is given. There may be an emphasis on emotional, in addition to bodily, care, with psychological help and bereavement counselling additionally accessible.

The goal of palliative care is also to help the family or carers of the patient and to offer a holistic approach to their care, including spiritual and psychological matters

The objective of palliative care can be to assist the household or carers of the affected person and to supply a holistic method to their care, together with non secular and psychological issues

PERINATAL

This pertains to the time simply earlier than or simply after delivery, from the twenty eighth week of being pregnant to the tip of the week after delivery.

The prefix ‘peri’, from Historic Greek, means ‘about’, ’round’ or ‘close to’. It may also be present in pericardium, the sac across the coronary heart.

One other instance is perimenopause, which refers back to the time main as much as menopause, when oestrogen ranges start to drop.

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

Experiencing common numbness or tingling within the fingers and toes is a attribute signal of peripheral neuropathy — harm to the nerves within the fingers and toes.

Peripheral means ‘past a boundary’, derived from the Historic Greek phrases, peri (’round’) and phero (‘to hold’); and neur (‘nerve’).

The peripheral nerves are the a part of the nervous system not enclosed in bones, and embrace the sensory nerves (which ship ache and contact messages), motor nerves (which management muscular tissues) and autonomic nerves (which assist regulate physique features similar to blood strain).

Peripheral neuropathy is usually linked to diabetes, viral infections (similar to shingles) and bodily damage.

PERISTALSIS

That is the method that pushes meals by way of our digestive system. Muscle mass within the partitions of the digestive tract, which runs from the gullet to the colon, tighten and loosen up, propelling meals alongside.

Round muscular tissues within the partitions lining the tract contract behind meals, stopping it shifting again, then muscular tissues working lengthways contract to push it alongside.

However the pace can change.Dehydration and lack of fibre could trigger it to decelerate, resulting in constipation.

And if the intestine is aggravated by, say, micro organism or a meals it can’t break down correctly, the muscular tissues can spasm, inflicting cramps. In the meantime, an infection may cause peristalsis to hurry up — consequently, meals strikes by way of the intestine quicker and fewer fluid is absorbed, resulting in diarrhoea.

The phrase peristalsis comes from the Greek ‘peristallein’ — ‘peri’ means round, and ‘stallein’ means to put, and collectively it interprets as ‘to wrap round’.

POLYP

Polyps are small, irregular growths of tissue that may happen in lots of components of the physique together with the colon or bowel, nostril, throat and abdomen. They’re sometimes no bigger than just a few centimetres however can vary in measurement.

Most polyps are non-cancerous or benign, however as they’re attributable to irregular cell development (presumably as a result of extra manufacturing of pores and skin cells), over time they’ll develop to grow to be cancerous (or malignant). This may be examined with a biopsy — the place a small pattern of the tissue is examined to determine cancerous cells.

Signs attributable to benign polyps differ relying on their location. For instance, these within the bowel could trigger stomach ache and diarrhoea or constipation, whereas these within the nostril may result in a blocked or runny nostril and decreased sense of style or odor.

Blood within the urine could sign polyps within the bladder, and lack of listening to means they could be within the ear canal.

Polyps are small, abnormal growths of tissue that can occur in many parts of the body including the colon or bowel, nose, throat and stomach

Polyps are small, irregular growths of tissue that may happen in lots of components of the physique together with the colon or bowel, nostril, throat and abdomen

PROLAPSE

From he Latin for ‘to slide ahead’, in medication, a prolapse is when part of the physique shifts, or falls out of its correct place — this is the reason your physician could discuss with a slipped disc as a ‘prolapsed’ disc.

A prolapsed disc is a typical reason for again ache — right here, one of many discs within the backbone, which act as a cushion between the vertebrae, splits, permitting the gel-like substance inside to bulge out, urgent on nerves within the spinal wire and inflicting ache.

Girls may expertise prolapse of the pelvic organs, significantly in the event that they’ve had youngsters — right here, the tissue supporting the bladder, womb, or bowel is weakened, so the organ slips down, urgent into the vagina. It isn’t life-threatening, however is uncomfortable, and might trigger issue urinating and ache throughout intercourse.

The alternative of prolapse is relapse — ‘to fall again’ — however this tends to explain signs or situations which have returned, as an alternative of a bodily motion.

RECESSIVE

All of us have two copies of every gene, one from every father or mother. These genes act because the blueprint for cells and decide traits similar to eye color and hair color.

One is often stronger than the opposite, so will over-ride the directions from its accomplice gene. The stronger known as dominant; the weaker recessive. For instance, the gene for blue eyes is recessive and the gene for brown eyes dominant, so if a toddler inherits each genes, they are going to have brown eyes.

Recessive genes may set off sure illnesses, similar to cystic fibrosis. The gene that causes this situation is recessive, so if an individual inherits it from one father or mother, it is going to be over-ridden and so they will not have the dysfunction. Nevertheless, in the event that they inherit two copies of the defective gene — one from every father or mother — they are going to develop it.

RHEUMATOID

Rheumatoid is mostly adopted by the phrase ‘arthritis’, the place it refers to irritation within the joints, muscular tissues or connective tissue round our physique, inflicting signs similar to ache and stiffness.

The suffix ‘oid’ means it is derived from one other phrase, on this case, rheumatism, which comes from the traditional Greek rheuma, that means stream or movement. Muscle and joint aches and pains have been regarded as the results of extreme ‘watery’ humours — liquids throughout the physique.

Now, in fact, rheumatoid arthritis is known to be an auto-immune illness, the place the physique assaults the liner of the joints which ends up in irritation, whereas rheumatism is used as a extra common medical time period for joint or muscle issues.

Rheumatoid is most commonly followed by the word 'arthritis', where it refers to inflammation in the joints, muscles or connective tissue around our body, causing symptoms such as pain and stiffness

Rheumatoid is mostly adopted by the phrase ‘arthritis’, the place it refers to irritation within the joints, muscular tissues or connective tissue round our physique, inflicting signs similar to ache and stiffness

SOMATIC CELLS

Derived from the Greek phrase soma, that means ‘physique’, somatic cells are principally any cells which have a particular perform or make up a specific tissue within the physique, similar to bone cells, blood cells or liver cells.

Somatic cells are getting used for therapeutic cloning, the place new cells are created in a lab to deal with degenerative illnesses similar to age-related macular degeneration (the place cells within the eye have died).

They may also be used throughout reproductive cloning, as within the case of Dolly the sheep.

Somatic cells have two units of chromosomes, one from every father or mother. That is totally different from sperm cells and egg cells (‘germ line’ cells), which have just one set of chromosomes — these fuse collectively when an egg is fertilised. Gene remedy involving somatic cells will not be handed on to offspring; modifications to germ line cells are.

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

The sympathetic nervous system is one among two components of a wider construction referred to as the autonomic nervous system which controls lots of our involuntary bodily processes similar to heartbeat and respiration. The opposite half is the parasympathetic nervous system, and so they work in conjunction.

The sympathetic facet is chargeable for our ‘flight or struggle’ reactions — for instance, it will increase coronary heart and respiration charges, blood strain and pupil diameter at occasions of stress or train (the parasympathetic department will exert reverse results). It means we’re extra ready in such conditions; our coronary heart beats stronger and quicker, our respiration is made extra environment friendly, and areas which aren’t important at that second — such because the digestive system — are inhibited in order that extra power might be spent elsewhere.

The time period ‘sympathetic’ was first utilized by Danish anatomist Jacques-Benigne Winslow within the 1700s, who coined the time period in reference to components of the physique ‘topic to a typical nervous affect’. The phrase sympathetic has origins within the Greek phrase sympathes, that means to ‘have a fellow feeling’.

SYNCOPE

From the Greek for ‘slicing brief’, syncope refers back to the impact of a short lived drop in blood movement to part of the physique. It usually used to imply fainting, when there’s a lack of consciousness attributable to decreased blood movement to the mind.

Fainting can happen for numerous causes. Mostly, it’s all the way down to a short lived malfunction within the autonomic nervous system, which regulates features similar to coronary heart fee and blood strain.

Exterior triggers similar to a nasty shock can set off this malfunction, which in flip results in fainting.

Some folks could faint after coughing, sneezing or laughing, which may place a sudden pressure on the autonomic nervous system often known as ‘situational syncope’. And when fainting is all the way down to a coronary heart downside interrupting the mind’s blood provide, this is named ‘cardiac syncope’. When there may be coldness or numbness in a small space of the physique from diminished blood movement, significantly the fingers, it is named ‘native syncope’.

THROMBOLYSIS

Thrombolysis, also referred to as thrombolytic remedy or ‘clot-busting’ remedy, is the title for medicine which dissolve clots blocking blood vessels.

The medicine are administered by way of an intravenous line (IV), or a protracted catheter (tube) that delivers medicine on to the positioning of the blockage. Typically a tool will likely be inserted into the catheter to take away the clot. Thrombolysis is commonly used as emergency remedy for stroke when it is attributable to a clot in arteries within the mind — nevertheless, it have to be given inside 4 and a half hours of signs. It is also used to interrupt up blood clots in arteries feeding the guts (the primary reason for coronary heart assaults). Clot-busting medicine are also given for deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Thrombolysis, also known as thrombolytic therapy or 'clot-busting' treatment, is the name for drugs which dissolve clots blocking blood vessels. The drugs are administered through an intravenous line (IV), or a long catheter (tube) that delivers drugs directly to the site of the blockage

Thrombolysis, also referred to as thrombolytic remedy or ‘clot-busting’ remedy, is the title for medicine which dissolve clots blocking blood vessels. The medicine are administered by way of an intravenous line (IV), or a protracted catheter (tube) that delivers medicine on to the positioning of the blockage

TORSION

The time period means ‘twisting’ — mostly affecting the intestines or testicles.

Torsion of the intestines, often known as a volvulus, happens when a part of it turns into twisted and loops again on itself, inflicting a blockage.

This could happen at any level within the digestive tract, together with the abdomen, small gut and decrease colon.

Signs differ, however stomach ache is commonly probably the most pronounced.

It’s doubtlessly severe as a result of the twist can block blood provide and, if untreated, can result in perforation, peritonitis and will even be deadly.

Testicular torsion happens when the wire from which the testicle hangs turns into twisted.

Usually, the testes can transfer somewhat within the scrotum, however some boys are born with a wire that’s too unfastened.

The issue may happen in adults if there may be trauma to the realm.

In consequence, the blood provide is minimize off and it rapidly turns into painful.

With out corrective surgical procedure — inside six to eight hours — the testicle can die off.

Leave a Comment