JCVI assertion on the COVID-19 vaccination programme for 2023: 8 November 2022


Because the first COVID-19 vaccine was authorised to be used within the UK in December 2020, the intention of the COVID-19 vaccination programme has been, and continues to be, the discount of extreme illness (hospitalisation and mortality) throughout the inhabitants, whereas defending the NHS.

Because the transition continues away from a pandemic emergency response in direction of pandemic restoration, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) has begun to think about the 2023 COVID-19 vaccination programme. The present Omicron period is characterised by:

  • excessive ranges of inhabitants immunity acquired via vaccination and/or pure an infection
  • decrease illness severity in comparison with an infection on account of earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants

Throughout this time, the danger of extreme COVID-19 continues to be disproportionately better in these from older age teams, residents in care houses for older adults, and individuals with sure underlying well being circumstances. In comparison with the preliminary phases of the pandemic, rather more is now understood relating to SARS-CoV2 an infection. Nevertheless, there stays ongoing uncertainty relating to virus evolution, the sturdiness and breadth of immunity, and the epidemiology of an infection. These uncertainties restrict the fast growth of a routine immunisation programme towards COVID-19.


JCVI’s interim recommendation for planning functions forward of 2023 is that:

  • in autumn 2023, individuals at greater danger of extreme COVID-19 might be supplied a booster vaccine dose in preparation for winter 2023 to 2024

  • as well as, for a smaller group of individuals (corresponding to individuals of older age and those that are immunosuppressed) an additional booster vaccine dose could also be supplied in spring 2023

  • emergency surge vaccine responses could also be required ought to a novel variant of concern emerge with clinically important organic variations in comparison with the Omicron variant

JCVI additionally advises that:

  • the 2021 booster supply (third dose) for individuals aged 16 to 49 years who aren’t in a scientific danger group ought to shut in alignment with the shut of the autumn 2022 vaccination marketing campaign[footnote 1]

  • in any other case wholesome individuals aged 5 to 49 years who develop a brand new well being situation in 2023 that locations them in a scientific danger group can be supplied main vaccination and/or a booster vaccine in the course of the subsequent seasonal vaccination marketing campaign, as applicable. Vaccination exterior these marketing campaign intervals can be topic to particular person scientific judgement

  • main course COVID-19 vaccination ought to transfer, over the course of 2023, in direction of a extra focused supply throughout vaccination campaigns to guard these individuals at greater danger of extreme COVID-19. This would come with:

    • residents in a care residence for older adults and employees working in care houses for older adults
    • frontline well being and social care staff
    • all adults aged 50 years and over
    • individuals aged 5 to 49 years in a scientific danger group, as set out within the Inexperienced E book
    • individuals aged 12 to 49 years who’re family contacts of individuals with immunosuppression
    • individuals aged 16 to 49 years who’re carers, as set out within the Inexperienced E book
  • analysis must be thought-about to tell the optimum timing of booster vaccinations to guard towards extreme COVID-19 (hospitalisations and deaths) for teams who’re at totally different ranges of scientific danger


It’s estimated that over 97% of adults in England had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, both from an infection or vaccination, by the tip of August 2022 (reference 1). In Nice Britain, an estimated 93 to 99% of kids aged 12 to fifteen years, and 74 to 98% of kids aged 8 to 11 years, had antibodies towards SARS-CoV-2 on the finish of August 2022 (references 1 and a pair of). Pure immunity alone gives good ranges of safety towards extreme COVID-19 whereas the mix of pure and vaccine-induced immunity (hybrid immunity) is related to even greater ranges of safety (references 3,4 and 5). This excessive stage of robust inhabitants immunity developed over the previous 2 and a half years is underneath common monitoring via UK Well being Safety Company (UKHSA) public well being surveillance programmes.

Not all hospitalisations and deaths ascribed to SARS-CoV-2 an infection are vaccine-preventable occasions. As a result of excessive transmissibility of the Omicron variant, along with an infection that may be asymptomatic or solely mildly symptomatic, individuals who require hospital take care of non-COVID-19 causes could also be coincidentally contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. Such hospitalisations aren’t preventable via COVID-19 vaccination. In distinction, some extremely susceptible people might develop extreme COVID-19 regardless of being vaccinated; these people usually have underlying well being circumstances that confer excessive susceptibility to extreme illness from different infections as effectively. Within the UK, in the course of the Omicron period (as much as week 43, 2022), the best charges of hospitalisations had been persistently noticed in individuals aged 75 years and over, whereas charges of an infection (non-severe sickness) had been excessive throughout all ages and particularly amongst youthful individuals (references 6 and seven).

Revised estimates of the quantity wanted to vaccinate (NNV) to forestall one hospitalisation in the course of the Omicron period point out that 800 individuals aged 70 years and above would have to be given a booster in autumn 2022 (a fourth dose) to forestall one hospitalisation from COVID-19. The corresponding NNV for individuals aged 50 to 59 years is 8,000 and for individuals aged 40 to 49 years who aren’t in a scientific danger group is 92,500 (Appendix 1).

In November 2021, JCVI suggested boosters for wholesome adults aged 40 to 49 years because of the epidemiology on the time. With the emergence of the Omicron variant in late November 2021, the supply was prolonged to wholesome people aged 16 to 39 years as a part of an emergency surge response (see JCVI replace on recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination of kids and younger individuals and UK vaccine response to the Omicron variant: JCVI recommendation). Since April 2022, uptake of the preliminary booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine has been lower than 0.1% per week in all eligible individuals underneath 50 years of age (Determine 62c in reference 8). Based mostly on the present information, retaining the booster (third dose) supply open to those teams is taken into account of restricted ongoing worth and the general influence on vaccine protection is negligible.

The affords of main course vaccination have been extensively out there since 2021. Uptake of those vaccine affords have plateaued in current months throughout all age teams (Determine 62a in reference 8). Because the starting of 2022, lower than 0.01% of eligible people per week over the age of 12 years, acquired a primary COVID-19 vaccine dose. A extra focused supply of main course vaccination throughout vaccination marketing campaign intervals will allow these efforts to be extra centered and permit extra environment friendly use of NHS sources.

Though the COVID-19 vaccination programme has been very profitable total, there are some socioeconomic and ethnic teams the place vaccine protection stays decrease (reference 6). Addressing well being inequalities is a long-term effort that’s related to all UK immunisation programmes. Constructing belief, and particularly vaccine confidence, requires regular decided investments of time, sources and individuals. Applicable and ample communication must be offered upfront of adjustments to the first course vaccination supply to optimise uptake amongst those that are eligible however have but to just accept the supply of vaccination.

Future variants and their influence on epidemiology

Because the virulence of any new emergent variant can’t be reliably predicted, speedy response measures could also be required ought to there be substantial adjustments in inhabitants immunity towards the dominant circulating variant, together with any new variant of concern.

JCVI will maintain the epidemiology of COVID-19 underneath assessment and can present recommendation for a surge response, as required.


  1. Workplace for Nationwide Statistics (ONS) Coronavirus (COVID-19) newest insights: antibodies.

  2. UK Well being Safety Company unpublished information.

  3. Protecting effectiveness of prior SARS-CoV-2 an infection and hybrid immunity towards Omicron an infection and extreme illness: a scientific assessment and meta-regression.

  4. Threat of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and COVID-19 hospitalisation in people with pure and hybrid immunity: a retrospective, whole inhabitants cohort research in Sweden.

  5. Safety towards Omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.2 reinfection conferred by main Omicron BA.1 or pre-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 an infection amongst health-care staff with and with out mRNA vaccination: a test-negative case-control research.

  6. Nationwide flu and COVID-19 surveillance studies: 2022 to 2023 season.

  7. Coronavirus (COVID-19) within the UK dashboard.

  8. Nationwide flu and COVID-19 surveillance report: 27 October 2022 (week 43).

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