On March 3, 2020, the top of the World Well being Group started a each day press briefing exhorting international locations around the globe to do extra to cease the unfold of Covid.
Director-Common Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus’ plea had turn into a typical chorus within the previous weeks: If aggressive measures have been taken, the virus might be contained.
That chance, he mentioned, was one of many key variations between Covid and the flu. “We don’t even discuss containment for seasonal flu. It’s simply not potential,” he mentioned.
However then one thing shocking occurred: Flu transmission floor to a halt. The influenza virus, it turned out, might be contained.
This revelation wouldn’t be the one time prior to now three years that Covid helped scientists achieve a brand new understanding concerning the flu. The eagle-eye deal with Covid has shifted how researchers — and the general public — take into consideration the seasonal flu.
Flu transmission may be stopped
The 2020-2021 flu season — the primary full flu season of the Covid pandemic — defied Tedros’ message. For the primary time since 1997, when WHO launched its international influenza monitoring web site FluNet, instances have been just about absent that winter.
“It was surprising how flu went to zero that yr,” mentioned Linsey Marr, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech. “We’ve realized that it’s potential to cease the flu.”
Researchers, to some extent, disagree on the precise motive for the unprecedented drop within the flu that season. Pandemic-related mitigation measures — together with using masks, avoiding journey and indoor gatherings, and extra frequent hand-washing — probably performed a job.
Others credit score the truth that Covid was the dominant virus that winter.
“While you get uncovered to a respiratory virus like flu or Covid, it induces an preliminary immune response that’s nonspecific,” defined Dr. Matthew Memoli, director of the Laboratory of Infectious Ailments’ scientific research unit on the Nationwide Institute of Allergy and Infectious Ailments.
He mentioned that in a while, the physique develops the virus-specific antibodies, however at that preliminary level, nonspecific antiviral response can cut back flu danger, too.
“If you happen to’re being uncovered frequently to a Covid virus, that’s going to have your viral response actually turned on … and also you’re not prone to a different respiratory virus like flu at that second,” he mentioned.
Whether or not it was Covid’s dominance or behavioral modifications that contributed most to the nonexistent 2020-2021 flu season — and lots of credit score each — the newfound data that flu transmission can in actual fact, be stopped, is right here to remain.
‘Nonpharmaceutical interventions’ work
Earlier than Covid, consultants put restricted inventory in so-called nonpharmaceutical — that’s, nonvaccination — methods for stopping flu transmission. Whereas behaviors corresponding to hand-washing, carrying masks and air filtration have been thought-about good concepts, they weren’t believed to maneuver the needle considerably in stopping the unfold.
“Previous to the pandemic, we have been very centered on selling vaccination as the first approach to lower transmission of flu,” mentioned Seema Lakdawala, an affiliate professor of microbiology and immunology at Emory College in Atlanta. “Now what we notice is that, sure, vaccinations are actually vital, however further measures can actually convey down the general public well being burden of influenza.”
Earlier than 2020, she mentioned there had been a handful of research trying to measure how properly these interventions work, however they have been inconclusive. “Popping out of the Covid-19 pandemic, we now have conclusive proof that mitigation methods like masking, social distancing and staying dwelling when you’re sick can drastically influence the transmission of influenza viruses,” she mentioned.
Pretty constant influenza vaccination charges additional help this newfound appreciation for nonpharmaceutical interventions.
“I don’t assume the quantity of vaccine uptake was drastically greater,” Lakdawala mentioned of the 2020-2021 flu season. She mentioned it was at all times round 40% to 60%, including that she didn’t assume the drop in flu transmission was primarily pushed by vaccine immunity.
Certain sufficient, in line with the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention, 52.1% of individuals in the USA had acquired their seasonal flu vaccines by the top of the 2020-2021 season, only a small uptick from 51.8% within the 2019-2020 season.
Flu can unfold by way of aerosols
Within the early days of the pandemic, how Covid spreads from individual to individual was one of the crucial hotly debated subjects amongst scientists. Initially thought to unfold by way of respiratory droplets expelled when individuals cough, sneeze or speak, scientists now perceive it might additionally unfold by way of even smaller particles known as aerosols that may drift by way of the air.
Marr mentioned she and her colleagues don’t have a transparent reply as to which mode of transmission is dominant, however her work has proven that the flu, like Covid, also can unfold by way of aerosols. To make certain, many flu researchers acknowledged this earlier than the pandemic, however the proof was largely restricted to a 1979 case research during which an airplane was grounded for 3 hours on account of engine failure. With no air filtration, 72 % of passengers developed flu signs, and practically all who examined — together with the unique passenger who’d boarded the flight sick — have been constructive for the flu.
“It was virtually certainly airborne transmission in that case,” Marr mentioned. Though the airline case research taught the analysis neighborhood about airborne flu transmission, she mentioned most people’s appreciation for these dangers has elevated due to Covid.
All through the pandemic, analysis into efficient methods to restrict aerosol transmission has additionally bolstered help for HEPA and UV air filters, and humidity management in indoor areas. Based on Marr’s analysis, these classes can apply to the flu, too.
‘Lengthy flu’ could also be a danger
The prevalence of lengthy Covid — that’s, lingering, and generally debilitating, signs that persist lengthy after the preliminary an infection — has shifted how researchers take into consideration flu dangers, mentioned Akiko Iwasaki, a professor of immunobiology at Yale College.
“Covid is certainly not alone in having these long-term penalties, even after a gentle an infection,” she mentioned. After the flu, it’s not remarkable to expertise signs, particularly lingering fatigue and mind fog.
Based on Iwasaki, seasonal flu is much less prone to trigger lasting signs than pandemic flu strains just like the 2009 H1N1 virus, however extra analysis is required to say for certain.
She mentioned that for the 2009 pandemic flu and “even the 1918 flu, there are loads of tales about individuals growing psychosis or neurological illnesses over an extended interval.” One 2015 research within the journal Vaccine confirmed that, throughout Norway, individuals who’d been contaminated with the 2009 H1N1 flu developed power fatigue greater than twice as typically as those that’d been vaccinated that flu season.
A current research within the journal Cell urged that even delicate Covid may result in power mind harm. In that research, the researchers in contrast delicate Covid infections with delicate flu infections in mice and people and located that the mind results have been comparable round seven days post-infection. Then, after an extended follow-up, the Covid infections led to longer-term harm than the flu viruses, which largely subsided after seven weeks. These kind of research, spurred by the Covid pandemic, have already begun to assist clarify how the flu behaves within the physique, Iwasaki mentioned.
Asymptomatic flu infections could also be underappreciated
The Covid pandemic put a highlight on the extent and danger of asymptomatic infections. With a lot of the inhabitants swabbing their nostrils each day, or weekly, then reporting these outcomes to their jobs and docs, well being officers have been capable of collect a wealth of information on how many individuals examined constructive for Covid with out signs and the way lengthy these infections endured.
“The rationale we discovered asymptomatic instances so clearly for Covid was that everyone was testing repeatedly to have the ability to go to work,” Lakdawala, of Emory College, mentioned. “We bought repeat testing on the identical inhabitants each week, however we’ve by no means accomplished that for influenza.”
As a result of individuals seldom check for the flu until they really feel awful, Lakdawala mentioned the extent of asymptomatic flu infections is troublesome to measure, not to mention estimate.
Scientists do know that asymptomatic flu instances are potential, and that there’s a 24-hour interval the place individuals shed virus earlier than they begin to really feel sick. However given the worth of repeat testing, Lakdawala and Marr each mentioned that widespread, low-cost flu assessments needs to be available.
Folks need to check — and so they’re good at it
In Lakdawala’s view, probably the most priceless flu takeaway from Covid is the data that persons are not solely wanting to know in the event that they’ve been contaminated with a virus, however are additionally able to finishing up the check protocols for correct outcomes.
“Earlier than, when widespread at-home testing would come up, there was at all times a query of whether or not somebody would know the way to swab themselves precisely, or if they might get a pattern that was ok,” she mentioned. “Now, we’ve confirmed that persons are keen to swab their noses very well.”
The implications for the flu, and for different viruses together with respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, are clear: if given the choice of inexpensive, at-home flu assessments, individuals would readily swab themselves.
“Persons are engaged at a stage that we by no means appreciated,” Lakdawala mentioned. “They need to know, so we should always give them the instruments to know, after which accumulate that information.”